This paper sets out a number of lessons to be learned about the policy challenges associated with the resilience concept. In fact, these are more accurately described as lessons observed because they are not lessons learned until they are implemented. Consequently, this paper identifies a number of challenges for policy makers and it does so by setting those issues within the conceptual framework of a resilience continuum whereby individual nation states and civil-societies can be at different stages of resilience at any given time. Resilience is part of a complex integrated dynamic system influenced by a range of different actors and variables at any given time. The first challenge for policy makers is to understand the way policy issues are framed and, correspondingly, the way resilience is framed as part of any response mechanism to address a given policy problem. A critical lesson is the importance of determining whom or what needs to be made resilient against what threat or risk as part of a resilience continuum. This presents a number of significant and complex decisions regarding the allocation of finite resources. Associated with this issue is the recognition that some parts of the system of a nation state or its civil society may fail or, indeed, be allowed to fail. This holds a number of ethical challenges for policy-makers. A key lesson to be learned is that by ascribing resilience as a desirable goal, there need to be clear milestones to indicate stages of achievement. Currently this is a significant omission in policy papers and implementation strategies. This paper also highlights that by adopting the resilience concept, a greater number of actors will be involved and co-opted as part of a wider shared responsibility for its implementation. Particular attention is given to the roles of organisations, as part of the critical infrastructure sector, as potential enablers or inhibitors of resilience. This is an area that requires further research.