As a distinct critical approach to all kinds of archaeological materials and their respective interpretations, “critical archaeology” can be understood quite literarily. The main objective of such an archaeology is in my opinion a reflected and selfcritical perspective. To be aware of one’s own subjective view includes a consideration of the history of research of individual archaeological disciplines, their schools and specialized centers. Germanspeaking Egyptology is still in its infancy as far as a theoretical discourse is concerned. Recent advances have been made especially in the assessment of possible influences of the Nazi era on Egyptologists. As far as a critical approach to the continuing colonial excavation system is concerned, a fresh discussion comes from Britain (Quirke 2010). Colonial and postcolonial residues within some interpretations have been primarily discussed in terms of the relationship of Egypt and other parts of Africa (Morkot 2003; Smith 2003). The paper presents two case studies that illustrate the potential of “critical archaeology”: (1) the interpretation of Nubian cultures – which were once established from an Egyptcentered perspective with a clear colonial attitude, and (2) the Egyptological history of research on sexuality/sexual acts in Ancient Egypt, a still very incomplete area of research that clearly reflects the personal and social backgrounds of the authors of these studies (cf. Dowson 2008, Parkinson 2008). It goes without saying that the biographies of past individuals, their feelings, social interactions and daily activities will always be hard to grasp and that they will be mostly invisible in the archaeological record. Despite these difficulties we should aim at reconstructing ancient cultures in a selfreflective and critical way. Both the awareness of the speculative character of our interpretations and the need to actively reconstruct patterns of ancient lives must have their place in archaeological studies. They deserve space in any academic curriculum as well as in research applications and projects.