Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) on mitral valve geometry and function.
Methods: Eighty-four patients underwent TAVI. Forty-four (52%) patients received a balloon-expandable valve and 40 (48%) were implanted with a self-expandable valve. All patients underwent three-dimensional-volumetric transesophageal echocardiography of the mitral valve before and immediately after TAVI. A dedicated software was used for assisted semiautomatic measurement of mitral annular geometry.
Results: During systole, the anterior to posterior (AP) diameter was significantly reduced after the procedure (3.4 ± 0.5 cm vs 3.2 ± 0.5 cm; P < .05). The mitral annular area (10.8 ± 2.8cm2 vs 9.9 ± 2.6cm2; P < .05) as well as the tenting area (1.6 ± 0.7 cm2 vs 1.2 ± 0.6 cm2; P < .001) measured at mid-systole were reduced after TAVI. Diastolic measures were similar. Patients treated with balloon-expandable valves showed a significantly larger reduction in the AP diameter compared to self-expandable valves (−0.25 cm vs −0.11 cm; P < .05). The reduction of the annular area was higher in the balloon-expandable group (−1.2 ± 1.59 vs −0.22 ± 1.41; P < .05). Grade of mitral regurgitation did improve or remained stable after TAVI.
Conclusion: TAVI significantly impacts the mitral valve and mitral annular geometry and morphology. The choice of the prosthesis (balloon- vs self-expandable) may be relevant for those changes.