To compare the success, survival and costs of selective versus stepwise carious tissue removal (SE/SW) in permanent teeth with deep (>2/3 dentine depth) carious lesions.
Randomised controlled, unicentre, clustered two-arm superiority trial.
Outpatient clinic of a private university in Cairo, Egypt.
One hundred and fifteen participants (n=132 teeth), aged 18-47 years, from Cairo, Egypt, were enrolled. Premolars/molars with occlusal/occlusal-proximal deep lesions (radiographically >2/3 dentine), sensible pulps, without spontaneous pain, were included.
Peripheral carious tissue removal to hard dentine was performed. Pulpo-proximally, soft dentine was left. A glass ionomer (GI) restoration was placed. After 3-4 months, teeth were randomly allocated to SE (n=66), with reduction of the GI into a base and no further tissue removal, followed by a composite resin restoration, or SW (n=66), with full removal of the GI, additional excavation until firm dentine pulpo-proximally, followed by a GI-based composite restoration. Mean follow-up was 1 year.
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:
Primary outcome was success (absence of endodontic/restorative complications). Secondary outcomes were tooth survival and initial and total treatment costs.
Zero/five pulp exposures occurred during SE/SW, and seven/five SE/SW teeth required endodontic therapy. Success after 12 months was 89.4% for SE and 84.9% for SW. The estimated mean time free of complications was 23 and 18 months for SE and SW, respectively, without significant differences between SE and SW (p>0.05/Cox). Initial treatment costs were significantly higher for SW (mean (SD): 507.5 (123.4) Egyptian pounds (EGP)) than SE (mean (SD): 456.6 (98.3) EGP), while total costs showed no significant difference (p>0.05).
Within the limitations of this interim analysis, and considering the depth of these lesions (>2/3 dentine), SE and SW showed similar risk of failure and overall costs after 1 year.View less
Aim of the Study:
The study examines how neurobiological and genetic explanations of psychopathy influence decision-making of German law students about legal and moral responsibility and sentencing of a defendant in a case of manslaughter. Previous studies from the United States and Germany have been criticized because they partly contradict legal analyses of real-world criminal cases. With a modified design, which integrates the main criticism, we re-examined the impact of biological explanations for psychopathy on decision-making in the courtroom.
We developed an improved quasi-experimental design to probe three case vignettes presenting different explanations of psychopathy in a criminal case of manslaughter. All three vignettes present the same information about a forensic expert's testimony that is said to report compelling evidence for the diagnosis of "psychopathy." The independent variable being manipulated is the type of information supporting the expert diagnosis: either no biological explanation of "psychopathy" versus a neurological explanation (brain injury) versus a genetic explanation (MAOA gene). The outcome measure is a questionnaire on legal and moral responsibility, free will, the type of custody, and the duration of the sentence. The study is adequately powered. We openly publish the data and all statistical analyses as reproducible R scripts.
The answers of German law students (n = 317) indicate that the omission of a neurobiological explanation is significantly associated with higher ratings of legal responsibility while compared to no biological explanation. However, there was no significant difference on the prison sentencing and type of custody assigned. Furthermore, there was no difference in the self-reported impact of the explanation of psychopathy on the participants' decision-making.
Our findings from German law students corroborates previous research on German judges but is markedly distinct from studies on United States judges. Whereas in the United States, biological information seems to have a mitigating effect, it seems to increase the rate of involuntary commitment to forensic psychiatric hospitals in Germany.View less
Microplastic particles are ubiquitous not only in marine but also in freshwater ecosystems. However, the impacts of microplastics, consisting of a large variety of synthetic polymers, on freshwater organisms remains poorly understood. We examined the effects of two polymer mixtures on the morphology, life history and on the molecular level of the waterflea Daphnia magna (three different clones). Microplastic particles of ~40 μm were supplied at a low concentration (1% of the food particles) leading to an average of ~30 particles in the digestive tract which reflects a high microplastic contamination but still resembles a natural situation. Neither increased mortality nor changes on the morphological (body length, width and tail spine length) or reproductive parameters were observed for adult Daphnia. The analyses of juvenile Daphnia revealed a variety of small and rather subtle responses of morphological traits (body length, width and tail spine length). For adult Daphnia, alterations in expression of genes related to stress responses (i.e. HSP60, HSP70 & GST) as well as of other genes involved in body function and body composition (i.e. SERCA) were observed already 48h after exposure. We anticipate that the adverse effects of microplastic might be influenced by many additional factors like size, shape, type and even age of the particles and that the rather weak effects, as detected in a laboratory, may lead to reduced fitness in a natural multi-stressor environment.View less
Interspecific hybridization (i.e. mating between species) occurs frequently in animals. Among cyclical parthenogens, hybrids can proliferate and establish through parthenogenetic reproduction, even if their sexual reproduction is impaired. In water fleas of the Daphnia longispina species complex, interspecific hybrids hatch from sexually produced dormant eggs. However, fewer hybrid genotypes contribute to the dormant egg bank and their hatching rate from dormant eggs is reduced, compared to eggs resulting from intraspecific crosses. Therefore, Daphnia hybrids would benefit from adaptations that increase their survival over winter as parthenogenetic lineages, avoiding the need to re-establish populations after winter from sexually produced dormant eggs. Here, we constructed a mathematical model to examine the conditions that could explain the frequently observed establishment of hybrids in the D. longispina species complex. Specifically, we compared the outcome of hybrid and parental taxa competition given a reduced contribution of hybrids to hatchlings from the sexually produced dormant egg bank, but their increased ability to survive winter as parthenogenetic lineages. In addition, different growth rates of parental species and differences in average annual temperatures were evaluated for their influence on hybrid production and establishment. Our model shows that increased overwinter performance as parthenogenetic females can compensate for reduced success in sexual reproduction, across all tested scenarios for varying relative growth rates of parental species. This pattern holds true for lower annual temperatures, but at higher temperatures hybrids were less successful. Consequently, hybrids might become less abundant as temperatures rise due to climate change, resulting in reduced diversity and faster differentiation of the parental species.View less
Biosignal-based research is often multidisciplinary and benefits greatly from multi-site collaboration. This requires appropriate tooling that supports collaboration, is easy to use, and is accessible. However, current software tools do not provide the necessary functionality, usability, and ubiquitous availability. The latter is particularly crucial in environments, such as hospitals, which often restrict users' permissions to install software. This paper introduces a new web-based application for interactive biosignal visualization and assessment. A focus has been placed on performance to allow for handling files of any size. The proposed solution can load local and remote files. It parses data locally on the client, and harmonizes channel labels. The data can then be scored, annotated, pseudonymized and uploaded to a clinical data management system for further analysis. The data and all actions can be interactively shared with a second party. This lowers the barrier to quickly visually examine data, collaborate and make informed decisions.View less
Experimental evolution can be used to test for and characterize parasite and pathogen adaptation. We undertook a serial-passage experiment in which a single parasite population of the obligate fungal (chytrid) parasite Rhizophydium megarrhizum was maintained over a period of 200 days under different mono- and multiclonal compositions of its phytoplankton host, the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Planktothrix. Despite initially inferior performance, parasite populations under sustained exposure to novel monoclonal hosts experienced rapid fitness increases evidenced by increased transmission rates. This demonstrates rapid adaptation of chytrids to novel hosts and highlights their high evolutionary potential. In contrast, increased fitness was not detected in parasites exposed to multiclonal host mixtures, indicating that cyanobacterial intraspecific diversity hampers parasites adaptation. Significant increases in intensity of infection were observed in monoclonal and multiclonal treatments, suggesting high evolvability of traits involved in parasite attachment onto hosts (i.e., encystment). A comparison of the performance of evolved and unevolved (control) parasite populations against their common ancestral host did not reveal parasite attenuation. Our results exemplify the ability of chytrid parasites to adapt rapidly to new hosts, while providing experimental evidence that genetic diversity in host populations grants increased resistance to disease by hindering parasite adaptation.View less
Emergence-delirium is the most frequent brain dysfunction in children recovering from general anaesthesia, though the pathophysiological background remains unclear. The presented study analysed an association between emergence delirium and intraoperative Burst Suppression activity in the electroencephalogram, a period of very deep hypnosis during general anaesthesia.
In this prospective, observational cohort study at the Charité - university hospital in Berlin / Germany children aged 0.5 to 8 years, undergoing planned surgery, were included between September 2015 and February 2017. Intraoperative bi-frontal electroencephalograms were recorded. Occurrence and duration of Burst Suppression periods were visually analysed. Emergence delirium was assessed using the Pediatric Assessment of Emergence Delirium Score.
From 97 children being analysed within this study, 40 children developed emergence delirium, and 57 children did not. Overall 52% of the children displayed intraoperative Burst Suppression periods; however, occurrence and duration of Burst Suppression (Emergence delirium group 55% / 261 + 462 s vs. Non-emergence delirium group 49% / 318 + 531 s) did not differ significantly between both groups.
Our data reveal no correlation between the occurrence and duration of intraoperative Burst Suppression activity and the incidence of emergence delirium. Burst Suppression occurrence is frequent; however, it does not seem to have an unfavourable impact on cerebral function at emergence from general anaesthesia in children.View less
Arthroplasty ranks among the greatest achievements of surgical medicine, with total hip replacement termed "the operation of the century." Despite its wide success, arthroplasty bears risks, such as local reactions to implant derived wear and corrosion products. Prevalence of allergies across Western society increases and along the number of reported hypersensitivity reactions to orthopedic implant materials. In this context the main focus is on delayed hypersensitivity (DTH). This mechanism is mainly attributed to T cells and an overreaction of the adaptive immune system. Arthroplasty implant materials are in direct contact with bone marrow (BM), which is discussed as a secondary lymphoid organ. However, the mechanisms of sensitization toward implant wear remain elusive. Nickel and cobalt ions can form haptens with native peptides to activate immune cell receptors and are therefore common T helper allergens in cutaneous DTH. The rising prevalence of metal-related allergy in the general population and evidence for the immune-modulating function of BM allow for the assumption hypersensitivity reactions could occur in peri-implant BM. There is evidence that pro-inflammatory factors released during DTH reactions enhance osteoclast activity and inhibit osteoblast function, an imbalance characteristic for osteolysis. Even though some mechanisms are understood, hypersensitivity has remained a diagnosis of exclusion. This review aims to summarize current views on the pathomechanism of DTH in arthroplasty with emphasis on BM and discusses recent advances and future directions for basic research and clinical diagnostics.View less
Mental health disorders (MHD) are leading causes of disabilities. Awareness of MHD in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is crucial to both health care professionals and general community if those affected by MHD are to be allowed to live in dignity and be socially included, rather than being treated as outcasts or witches, as is presently the case. Therefore, this review aims to map and summarise the extent to which awareness of MHD and dementia in SSA challenges stigmatisation issues.
A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO). A content analysis of selected studies was performed. Findings on awareness challenges and stigmatisation were identified and categorised.
A total of 230 publications were screened, 25 were selected for this review. The results demonstrate strong supernatural beliefs influencing peoples' perceptions of diseases. These perceptions promote stigmatising attitudes towards people with MHD and dementia. The education level correlated with stigmatising attitudes, whereby higher educated people were less likely to distance themselves socially from people with MHD and from people living with dementia (PwD). Astonishingly, even people educated in health issues (eg, nurses, medical practitioners) tended to have strong beliefs in supernatural causations of diseases, like witchcraft, and hold negative attitudes towards MHD and PwD.
This review provides some evidence on the influence of traditional beliefs on MHDs in SSA. Those beliefs are powerful and exist in all segments in SSA-communities, promoting superstitious perceptions on diseases and stigmatisation. Awareness and education campaigns on MHD are absolutely mandatory to reduce stigmatisation.View less
Background: Collateral circulation in ischemic stroke patients plays an important role in infarct evolution und assessing patients' eligibility for endovascular treatment. By means of dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI, we aimed to investigate the effects of reperfusion, recanalization, and collateral flow on clinical and imaging outcomes after stroke. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 184 patients enrolled into the prospective observational 1000Plus study (clinicaltrials.org NCT00715533). Inclusion criteria were vessel occlusion on baseline MR-angiography, imaging within 24 h after stroke onset and follow-up perfusion imaging. Baseline Higashida score using subtracted dynamic MR perfusion source images was used to quantify collateral flow. The influence of these variables, and their interaction with vessel recanalization, on clinical and imaging outcomes was assessed using robust linear regression. Results: Ninety-eight patients (53.3%) showed vessel recanalization. Higashida score (p = 0.002), and recanalization (p = 0.0004) were independently associated with reperfusion. However, we found no evidence that the association between Higashida score and reperfusion relied on recanalization status (p = 0.2). NIHSS on admission (p < 0.0001) and recanalization (p = 0.001) were independently associated with long-term outcome at 3 months, however, Higashida score (p = 0.228) was not. Conclusion: Higashida score and recanalization were independently associated with reperfusion, but the association between recanalization and reperfusion was similar regardless of collateral flow quality. Recanalization was associated with long-term outcome. DSC-based measures of collateral flow were not associated with long-term outcome, possibly due to the complex dynamic nature of collateral recruitment, timing of imaging and the employed post-processing.View less
Studies of parasite population dynamics in natural systems are crucial for our understanding of host–parasite coevolutionary processes. Some field studies have reported that host genotype frequencies in natural populations change over time according to parasite-driven negative frequency-dependent selection. However, the temporal patterns of parasite genotypes have rarely been investigated. Moreover, parasite-driven negative frequency-dependent selection is contingent on the existence of genetic specificity between hosts and parasites. In the present study, the population dynamics and host-genotype specificity of the ichthyosporean Caullerya mesnili, a common endoparasite of Daphnia water fleas, were analysed based on the observed sequence variation in the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of the ribosomal DNA. The Daphnia population of lake Greifensee (Switzerland) was sampled and subjected to parasite screening and host genotyping during C. mesnili epidemics of four consecutive years. The ITS1 of wild-caught C. mesnili-infected Daphnia was sequenced using the 454 pyrosequencing platform. The relative frequencies of C. mesnili ITS1 sequences differed significantly among years: the most abundant C. mesnili ITS1 sequence decreased and rare sequences increased over the course of the study, a pattern consistent with negative frequency-dependent selection. However, only a weak signal of host-genotype specificity between C. mesnili and Daphnia genotypes was detected. Use of cutting edge genomic techniques will allow further investigation of the underlying micro-evolutionary relationships within the Daphnia–C. mesnili system.View less
Studies of political polarization in social media demonstrate mixed evidence for whether discussions necessarily evolve into left and right ideological echo chambers. Recent research shows that, for political and issue-based discussions, patterns of user clusterization may differ significantly, but that cross-cultural evidence of the polarization of users on certain issues is close to non-existent. Furthermore, most of the studies developed network proxies to detect users’ grouping, rarely taking into account the content of the Tweets themselves. Our contribution to this scholarly discussion is founded upon the detection of polarization based on attitudes towards political actors expressed by users in Germany, the USA and Russia within discussions on inter-ethnic conflicts. For this exploratory study, we develop a mixed-method approach to detecting user grouping that includes: crawling for data collection; expert coding of Tweets; user clusterization based on user attitudes; construction of word frequency vocabularies; and graph visualization. Our results show that, in all the three cases, the groups detected are far from being conventionally left or right, but rather that their views combine anti-institutionalism, nationalism, and pro- and anti-minority views in varying degrees. In addition to this, more than two threads of political debate may co-exist in the same discussion. Thus, we show that the debate that sees Twitter as either a platform of ‘echo chambering’ or ‘opinion crossroads’ may be misleading. In our opinion, the role of local political context in shaping (and explaining) user clusterization should not be under-estimated.View less
The gene optrA is the first gene that confers resistance to the oxazolidinone tedizolid, a last resort antimicrobial agent in human medicine. In this study we investigated the presence of optrA and the multi-resistance genes poxtA and cfr in enterococci and staphylococci from (i) pet animals known to be fed raw meat and vegetables and (ii) the respective food items. We examined 341 bacterial isolates from cats and dogs, 195 bacterial isolates from supermarket food items and only one E. faecium collected from industrial food in Beijing during 2016. Thirty-five (6.5%) of the 537 isolates, including 31/376 (8.2%) enterococci and 4/161 (2.5%) staphylococci, were positive for optrA, while all isolates were negative for poxtA and cfr. S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Southern blotting confirmed that optrA was located in the chromosomal DNA of 19 isolates and on a plasmid in the remaining 16 isolates. Whole genome sequencing revealed several different genetic environments of optrA in plasmid- or chromosome-borne optrA genes. PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and/or SNP analysis demonstrated that the optrA-carrying Staphylococcus and Enterococcus isolates were genetically heterogeneous. However, in single cases, groups of related isolates were identified which might suggest a transfer of closely related optrA-positive E. faecalis isolates between food items and dogs.View less
Human campylobacteriosis constitutes a zoonotic food-borne disease and a progressively rising health burden of significant socioeconomic impact. We have recently shown that conventional mice are protected from Campylobacter jejuni infection, which was not the case for human microbiota associated (hma) mice indicating that the host-specific gut microbiota composition primarily determines susceptibility to or resistance against C. jejuni infection. In our present preclinical intervention study we addressed whether gut microbiota changes in stably C. jejuni infected hma mice following murine fecal microbiota transplantation (mFMT) could alleviate pathogen-induced immune responses. To accomplish this, secondary abiotic C57BL/6 mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, perorally reassociated with a complex human gut microbiota and challenged with C. jejuni by gavage. Seven days later C. jejuni infected hma mice were subjected to peroral mFMT on 3 consecutive days. Within a week post-mFMT fecal pathogenic burdens had decreased by two orders of magnitude, whereas distinct changes in the gut microbiota composition with elevated numbers of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria could be assessed. In addition, mFMT resulted in less C. jejuni induced apoptotic responses in colonic epithelia, reduced numbers of macrophages and monocytes as well as of T lymphocytes in the large intestinal mucosa and lamina propria and in less distinct intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion as compared to mock challenge. Strikingly, inflammation dampening effects of mFMT were not restricted to the intestinal tract, but could also be observed systemically as indicated by elevated serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-12p70, and IL-6 in C. jejuni infected hma mice of the mock, but not the mFMT cohort. In conclusion, our preclinical mFMT intervention study provides evidence that changes in the gut microbiota composition which might be achieved by pre- or probiotic formulations may effectively lower intestinal C. jejuni loads, dampen both, pathogen-induced intestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae and may represent a useful tool to treat continuous shedding of C. jejuni by asymptomatic carriers which is critical in the context of food production, hospitalization and immunosuppression.View less
Study design: A two center, observational study. Introduction: Patient reported outcome (PRO) plays an increasingly important role in the evaluation of novel therapies for tumor patients. It has been shown that tumor treating fields (TTFields) in combination with standard therapy prolong survival in high-grade glioma (hgG) patients. But critics claim that TTFields significantly impacts patients' everyday life due to side effects and average daily time on therapy (18 h) in a patient population with very limited life expectancy and high symptom burden. However, very limited data exist on PRO for TTFields treatment. Methods: This two center, observational study describes PRO of 30 hgG patients receiving TTFields in combination with chemotherapy. We introduced a device-specific questionnaire (DSQ) addressing device-specific restrictions and impact on daily live after 2 months of therapy. Additionally following questionnaires were used: EORTC (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer), QLQ-30 (Quality of life of cancer patients), QLQ BN20 (Quality of life brain cancer module), QLQ FA13 (Cancer-related fatigue), and SSUK-8 (social support). Results: Surveys have been completed by 91% of enrolled patients. EORTC QLQ-30 revealed better physical, emotional, and cognitive function than social and role function of study cohort. TTFields users reported frequently on positive social support and a low level of detrimental interactions. Seventy one percent of patients felt affected in daily life due to TTFields at least 2-3 times per week up to several times per day while maintaining high therapy compliance. Most frequent device-specific restrictions were duration of therapy (74%), size (66%), and weight (70%) of the device and changing time and bonding of the transducer arrays (66%, mean duration: 43.6 min). Restrictions on exercise of hobbies/work (63%/61%), body care (71%), and sexuality/relationship (64%) were most relevant. Seventy percent would recommend TTFields to others and 67% would reuse TTFields treatment again based on their current experience. Conclusion: The study shows that although TTFields treatment frequently affects everyday life in all aspects, therapy compliance was high and 67% of patients would reconsider TTFields for themselves. We propose that findings of PRO be taken into account for medical consultation about TTFields and in future device development to deliver high-value patient-centered care.View less
A more convenient synthesis of the perfluoro alkyl hypofluorite (F3C)3COF as well as the hitherto unknown (C2F5)(F3C)2COF compound is reported. Both hypofluorites can be prepared by use of the corresponding tertiary alcohols RFOH and elemental fluorine in the presence of CsF. An appropriate access to these highly reactive hypofluorites is crucial. The hypofluorites are then transferred into their corresponding perfluoro bisalkyl peroxides RFOORF [RF=(F3C)3C, (C2F5)(F3C)2C] by treatment with partially fluorinated silver wool. NMR, gas‐phase infrared, and solid‐state Raman spectra of the perfluoro bisalkyl peroxides are presented and their chemical properties are discussed.View less
A new microsporidian pathogen isolated from Crepidodera aurata was identified based on morphological and ultrastructural characteristics, coupled with a molecular phylogenetic analysis. The spores of the microsporidian pathogen were slightly curved in shape, and measured 2.44–3.55 μm in length and 1.25–1.55 μm in width (n = 50). Its ultrastructure is characteristic of monokaryotic groups. All lifecycle stages of the pathogen, including meronts, sporonts, sporoblasts, and mature spores, are monokaryotic. The spore has 6–8 windings of the polar filament. Morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the lifecycle stages place it within the family Unikaryonidae. However, the phylogenetic tree constructed on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicates that the pathogen is closely related to the Nosema/Vairimorpha clade of microsporidia. Therefore, we have classified the microsporidian of C. aurata in the tentative group Microsporidium in order to avoid creating an unnecessary or incorrect new genus/species.View less
Near-infrared sensitization of monolayer MoS2 is here achieved via the covalent attachment of a novel heteroleptic nickel bis-dithiolene complex into sulfur vacancies in the MoS2 structure. Photocurrent action spectroscopy of the sensitized films reveals a discreet contribution from the sensitizer dye centred around 1300 nm (0.95 eV), well below the bandgap of MoS2 (2.1 eV), corresponding to the excitation of the monoanionic dithiolene complex. A mechanism of conductivity enhancement is proposed based on a photo-induced flattening of the corrugated energy landscape present at sulfur vacancy defect sites within the MoS2 due to a dipole change within the dye molecule upon photoexcitation. This method of sensitization might be readily extended to other functional molecules that can impart a change to the dielectric environment at the MoS2 surface under stimulation, thereby extending the breadth of detector applications for MoS2 and other transition metal dichalcogenides.View less
Spine metastases affect more than 70% of terminal cancer patients that eventually suffer from severe pain and neurological symptoms. Nevertheless, in the overwhelming majority of the cases, a spinal metastasis represents just one location of a diffuse systemic disease. Therefore, the best practice for treatment of spinal metastases depends on many different aspects of an oncological disease, including the assessment of neurological status, pain, location, and dissemination of the disease as well as the ability to predict the risk of disease progression with neurological worsening, benefits and risks associated to treatment and, eventually, expected survival. To address this need for a framework and algorithm that takes all aspects of care into consideration, we reviewed available evidence on the multidisciplinary management of spinal metastases. According to the latest evidence, the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for spinal metastatic disease is rapidly increasing. Indeed, aggressive surgical resection may provide the best results in terms of local control, but carries a significant rate of post-surgical morbidity whose incidence and severity appears to be correlated to the extent of resection. The multidisciplinary management represents, according to current evidence, the best option for the treatment of spinal metastases. Noteworthy, according to the recent literature evidence, cases that once required radical surgical resection followed by low-dose conventional radiotherapy, can now be more effectively treated by minimally invasive spinal surgery (MISS) followed by spine SRS with decreased morbidity, improved local control, and more durable pain control. This combination allows also extending this standard of care to patients that would be too sick for an aggressive surgical treatment.View less
The Cenozoic convergence between India and Asia has created Earth's thickest crust in the Pamir‐Tibet Plateau by extreme crustal shortening. Here we study the crustal structure of the Pamir and western Tian Shan, the adjacent margins of the Tajik, Tarim, and Ferghana Basins, and the Hindu Kush, using data collected by temporary seismic experiments. We derive, compare, and combine independent observations from P and S receiver functions. The obtained Moho depth varies from ~40 km below the basins to a double‐normal thickness of 65–75 km underneath the Pamir and Hindu Kush. A Moho doublet—with the deeper interface down to a depth of ~90 km—coincides with the arc of intermediate‐depth seismicity underneath the Pamir, where Asian continental lower crust delaminates and rolls back. The crust beneath most of the Central and South Pamir has a low Vp/Vs ratio (<1.70), suggesting a dominantly felsic composition, probably a result of delamination/foundering of the mafic rocks of the lower crust. Beneath the Cenozoic gneiss domes of the Central and South Pamir, which represent extensional core complexes, the Vp/Vs ratios are moderate to high (~1.75), consistent with the previously observed, midcrustal low‐velocity zones, implying the presence of crustal partial melts. Even higher crustal average Vp/Vs ratios up to 1.90 are found in the sedimentary basins and along the Main Pamir Thrust. The ratios along the latter—the active thrust front of the Pamir—may reflect fluid accumulations within a strongly fractured fault system.View less