Background: Recently, mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) were identified in peripheral nociceptive neurons, and their acute antagonism was responsible for immediate and short-lasting (non-genomic) antinociceptive effects. The same neurons were shown to produce the endogenous ligand aldosterone by the enzyme aldosterone synthase.
Methods: Here, we investigate whether endogenous aldosterone contributes to inflammation-induced hyperalgesia via the distinct genomic regulation of specific pain signaling molecules in an animal model of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced hindpaw inflammation.
Results: Chronic intrathecal application of MR antagonist canrenoate-K (over 4 days) attenuated nociceptive behavior in rats with FCA hindpaw inflammation suggesting a tonic activation of neuronal MR by endogenous aldosterone. Consistently, double immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showed abundant co-localization of MR with several pain signaling molecules such as TRPV1, CGRP, Nav1.8, and trkA whose enhanced expression of mRNA and proteins during inflammation was downregulated following i.t. canrenoate-K. More importantly, inhibition of endogenous aldosterone production in peripheral sensory neurons by continuous intrathecal delivery of a specific aldosterone synthase inhibitor prevented the inflammation-induced enhanced transcriptional expression of TRPV1, CGRP, Nav1.8, and trkA and subsequently attenuated nociceptive behavior. Evidence for such a genomic effect of endogenous aldosterone was supported by the demonstration of an enhanced nuclear translocation of MR in peripheral sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons.
Conclusion: Taken together, chronic inhibition of local production of aldosterone by its processing enzyme aldosterone synthase within peripheral sensory neurons may contribute to long-lasting downregulation of specific pain signaling molecules and may, thus, persistently reduce inflammation-induced hyperalgesia.Weniger anzeigen
Objective: The WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (SDH) has called for a health workforce trained in recognising, understanding and acting on the SDH. However, little is known about how current medical education prepares graduates for this challenge. This study analyses the extent to which the German medical education incorporates content on SDH.
Design: Following a published protocol, in 2018, we conducted a qualitative and quantitative content analysis of three key document groups, defining and guiding what medical schools are expected to teach and what medical students are expected to know when graduating in Germany. We developed the coding system in a mixed inductive and deductive approach based on key WHO documents.
Setting: Medical schools and the medical education system in Germany.
Results: Important gaps exist in the representation of SDH in medical education in Germany. Between 3% and 27% of the analysed document-elements made reference to SDH and only 0%-3% of those document elements made explicit references to SDH. While some aspects were covered widely (eg, topics of occupational health, early childhood development and hygiene), other topics such as health inequalities or determinants outside of the healthcare system were not or hardly represented.
Conclusions: A stronger and more explicit representation of SDH in German medical education is needed to prepare the new health workforce for current and future challenges in our globalised world and for medical schools to be socially accountable.Weniger anzeigen
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the inter- and intrarater reliability of noncontrast CT (NCCT) markers [Black Hole Sign (BH), Blend Sign (BS), Island Sign (IS), and Hypodensities (HD)] and Spot Sign (SS) on CTA in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
Methods: Patients with spontaneous ICH at three German tertiary stroke centers were retrospectively included. Each CT scan was rated for four NCCT markers and SS on CTA by two radiology residents. Raters were blind to all demographic and outcome data. Inter- and intrarater agreement was determined by Cohen's kappa (κ) coefficient and percentage of agreement.
Results: Interrater agreement was excellent in 473 included patients, ranging from 96% to 99%. Interrater κ ranged from 0.85 (95% CI [0.78-0.91]) to 0.97 (95% CI [0.94-0.99]) for NCCT markers and 0.93 (95% CI [0.88-0.98]) for SS, all p-values < 0.001. Intrarrater agreement ranged from 96% to 100%, with κ ranging from 0.85 (95% CI [0.78-0.91]) to 1.00 (95% CI [0.10-0.85]) for NCCT markers and 0.96 (95% CI [0.92-1.00]) for SS, all p-values < 0.001.
Conclusions: NCCT imaging findings and SS on CTA have good-to-excellent inter- and intrarater reliabilities, with the highest agreement for BH and SS.Weniger anzeigen
Background: Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is considered an important driver of tumor development and progression by its histone modifying capabilities. Inhibition of EZH2 activity is thought to be a potent treatment option for eligible cancer patients with an aberrant EZH2 expression profile, thus the indirect EZH2 inhibitor 3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) is currently under evaluation for its clinical utility. Although DZNep blocks proliferation and induces apoptosis in different tumor types including lymphomas, acquired resistance to DZNep may limit its clinical application.
Methods: To investigate possible mechanisms of acquired DZNep resistance in B-cell lymphomas, we generated a DZNep-resistant clone from a previously DZNep-sensitive B-cell lymphoma cell line by long-term treatment with increasing concentrations of DZNep (ranging from 200 to 2000 nM) and compared the molecular profiles of resistant and wild-type clones. This comparison was done using molecular techniques such as flow cytometry, copy number variation assay (OncoScan and TaqMan assays), fluorescence in situ hybridization, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and metabolomics analysis.
Results: Whole exome sequencing did not indicate the acquisition of biologically meaningful single nucleotide variants. Analysis of copy number alterations, however, demonstrated among other acquired imbalances an amplification (about 30 times) of the S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (AHCY) gene in the resistant clone. AHCY is a direct target of DZNep and is critically involved in the biological methylation process, where it catalyzes the reversible hydrolysis of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine to L-homocysteine and adenosine. The amplification of the AHCY gene is paralleled by strong overexpression of AHCY at both the transcriptional and protein level, and persists upon culturing the resistant clone in a DZNep-free medium.
Conclusions: This study reveals one possible molecular mechanism how B-cell lymphomas can acquire resistance to DZNep, and proposes AHCY as a potential biomarker for investigation during the administration of EZH2-targeted therapy with DZNep.Weniger anzeigen
Simulium reptans (Linnaeus, 1758) and Simulium reptantoides Carlsson, 1962 are two species of the Simulium reptans group whose distribution is unclear because of their confusing taxonomy and systematics. Their genetic variability is well known for populations in northern and central Europe and shows that both species have two forms; however, the genetic variability of these species in southern and eastern Europe is unknown. To identify the status of these two species in southeast Europe, mtDNA was extracted from 19 individuals from 12 localities across the Balkan Peninsula. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the existence of two species with 7.38–7.94% divergence. Each species was comprised of two clades, with 2.31% and 1.43% interclade divergence for S. reptans and S. reptantoides, respectively. This study revealed the presence of both species across the Balkans and that S. reptans occurs in this area in only one form (S. reptans B), while S. reptantoides is found in two genetic forms (A and B).Weniger anzeigen
Purpose: In the 1980s the first results of an early multilevel contracture release (MLCR) in patients suffering from progressive Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) showed a positive effect on ambulation. Despite the demonstrated positive effects of prolongation of walking this treatment is not part of current guidelines. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of MLCR as well as its combination with glucocorticoid (GC) treatment on ambulation.
Methods: Data of all boys (n = 86) with DMD treated in our outpatient department were analyzed regarding the treatment and loss of independent ambulation. In all, 23 were treated with GC only, ten were operated on, 21 received GC and underwent MLCR and 32 received neither of the two treatments.
Results: The analysis of the loss of independent ambulation in our cohort showed a comparable extension of the ambulatory period between the GC-treated and MLCR-treated boys (p = 0.008 and p = 0.005, respectively). Furthermore, an additive effect of both therapies was found; patients with DMD who had both treatments were able to walk two years longer than those with only one of the two treatment options (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Standard GC treatment and early MLCR in lower limbs have an independent positive effect on prolongation of ambulation in patients with DMD. In our cohort, the combination of both therapies is significantly more effective than each therapy alone. We suggest both should be offered to all DMD patients eligible.
Level of evidence: III.Weniger anzeigen
Texts are often reread in everyday life, but most studies of rereading have been based on expository texts, not on literary ones such as poems, though literary texts may be reread more often than others. To correct this bias, the present study is based on two of Shakespeare’s sonnets. Eye movements were recorded, as participants read a sonnet then read it again after a few minutes. After each reading, comprehension and appreciation were measured with the help of a questionnaire. In general, compared to the first reading, rereading improved the fluency of reading (shorter total reading times, shorter regression times, and lower fixation probability) and the depth of comprehension. Contrary to the other rereading studies using literary texts, no increase in appreciation was apparent. Moreover, results from a predictive modeling analysis showed that readers’ eye movements were determined by the same psycholinguistic features throughout the two sessions. Apparently, even in the case of poetry, the process of reading is determined mainly by surface features of the text, unaffected by repetition.Weniger anzeigen
Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (ps-iPSCs) and their differentiated cell types are a powerful model system to gain insight into mechanisms driving early developmental and disease-associated regulatory networks. In this study, we use ps-iPSCs to gain insights into Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), which represents the most common cyanotic heart defect in humans. iPSCs were generated and further differentiated to cardiomyocytes (CMs) using standard methods from two well-characterized TOF patients and their healthy relatives serving as controls. Patient-specific expression patterns and genetic variability were investigated using whole genome and transcriptome sequencing data. We first studied the clonal mutational burden of the derived iPSCs. In two out of three iPSC lines of patient TOF-01, we found a somatic mutation in the DNA-binding domain of tumor suppressor P53, which was not observed in the genomic DNA from blood. Further characterization of this mutation showed its functional impact. For patient TOF-02, potential disease-relevant differential gene expression between and across cardiac differentiation was shown. Here, clear differences at the later stages of differentiation could be observed between CMs of the patient and its controls. Overall, this study provides first insights into the complex molecular mechanisms underlying iPSC-derived cardiomyocyte differentiation and its transcriptional alterations in TOF.Weniger anzeigen
Campylobacter spp. are one of the most important food-borne pathogens, which are quite susceptible to environmental or technological stressors compared to other zoonotic bacteria. This might be due to the lack of many stress response mechanisms described in other bacteria. Nevertheless, Campylobacter is able to survive in the environment and food products. Although some aspects of the heat stress response in Campylobacter jejuni are already known, information about the stress response in other Campylobacter species are still scarce. In this study, the stress response of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari to elevated temperatures (46°C) was investigated by survival assays and whole transcriptome analysis. None of the strains survived at 46°C for more than 8 h and approximately 20% of the genes of C. coli RM2228 and C. lari RM2100 were differentially expressed. The transcriptomic profiles showed enhanced gene expression of several chaperones like dnaK, groES, groEL, and clpB in both strains, indicating a general involvement in the heat stress response within the Campylobacter species. However, the pronounced differences in the expression pattern between C. coli and C. lari suggest that stress response mechanisms described for one Campylobacter species might be not necessarily transferable to other Campylobacter species.Weniger anzeigen
This paper discusses the full structural solution of the hybrid perovskite formamidinium lead tribromide (FAPbBr3) and its temperature-dependent phase transitions in the range from 3 K to 300 K using neutron powder diffraction and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Special emphasis is put on the influence of deuteration on formamidinium, its position in the unit cell and disordering in comparison to fully hydrogenated FAPbBr3. The temperature-dependent measurements show that deuteration critically influences the crystal structures, i.e. results in partially-ordered temperature-dependent structural modifications in which two symmetry-independent molecule positions with additional dislocation of the molecular centre atom and molecular angle inclinations are present.Weniger anzeigen
Groupwise antibiotic treatments are common in broiler chicken production. They induce selection for antibiotic resistance in commensalEscherichia coli.This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance after individual (I, drenching) or groupwise treatment (G, by water) with amoxicillin, and after contact with I or G (KI or KG), compared with untreated broilers without contact with treated broilers (C), and pretreatment values. Finally, we compared antibiotic resistance from broilers (G) after a second treatment, with a treatment in the contact animals (KG), and a first treatment in the control animals (C). Resistance to ampicillin and other antibiotics was significantly increased in groups G and I within 2 days, suggesting (co-)selection of resistance. The increase was lower in groups KI, KG, and C during the first treatment (days 1-5). The increased resistance in group C was interpreted as a change in the microbiota after initial moving and first feeding. After treatment, resistance rates decreased to initial or lower values in all groups. During the second treatment period (days 34-38), all three groups' (G, KG, and C) resistance levels increased to equally high levels. Cephalosporin resistance was low, and did not change over the experimental period. On days 3 and 38, resistance rates ofE. colifrom duodenum, jejunum, and cecum did not differ between segments and treatment routes. Overall, the baseline levels of antibiotic resistance inE. coliwere high. Amoxicillin triggered an increase in resistance levels, irrespective of the mode of treatment. Substantial resistance dynamics in untreated controls warrant further investigation.Weniger anzeigen
Brucellosis is reportedly endemic in ruminants in Pakistan. BothBrucella abortusandB. melitensisinfections have been decumented in domestic animals and humans in the country. This study aimed to identify the burden of anti-Brucellaantibodies in small ruminants as well as associated potential risk factors with its occurrence at nine institutional livestock farms in Punjab, Pakistan. The sera collected from equal number of sheep and goats (500 from each species) were screened by indirect-ELISA for anti-smooth-Brucellaantibodies followed by a serial detection by real-time PCR. Overall, 5.1% (51/1000) seropositivity was registered corresponding to 5% (25/500) prevalence in goats and 5.2% (26/500) in sheep.Brucella-DNA could not be detected in any of the tested sera by real-time PCR. Multiple logistic regression model indicated that farm location (OR 34.05), >4 years of age (OR 2.88), with history of reproductive disorders (OR 2.69), and with BCS of <= 3 (OR 12.37) were more likely to test positive for brucellosis at these farms. A routine screening, stringent biosecurity, and quarantine measures are warranted for monitoring and eradication of the infection. Similarly, isolation and molecular investigation of the etiologic agent(s) are needed to understand the relationship of epidemiology and out-breaks of brucellosis in the country.Weniger anzeigen
Objectives: Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) provides significant benefits over classic TMS. Yet, the acquisition of individual structural magnetic resonance images (MRIindividual) is a time-consuming, expensive, and not feasible prerequisite in all subjects for spatial tracking and anatomical guidance in nTMS studies. We hypothesize that spatial transformation can be used to adjust MRI templates to individual head shapes (MRIwarped) and that TMS parameters do not differ between nTMS using MRIindividual or MRIwarped.
Materials and Methods: Twenty identical TMS sessions, each including four different navigation conditions, were conducted in 10 healthy subjects (one female, 27.4 ± 3.8 years), i.e., twice per subject by two researchers to additionally assess interrater reliabilities. MRIindividual were acquired for all subjects. MRIwarped were obtained through the spatial transformation of a template MRI following a 5-, 9-and 36-point head surface registration (MRIwarped_5, MRIwarped_9, MRIwarped_36). Stimulation hotspot locations, resting motor threshold (RMT), 500 μV motor threshold (500 μV-MT), and mean absolute motor evoked potential difference (MAD) of primary motor cortex (M1) examinations were compared between nTMS using either MRIwarped variants or MRIindividual and non-navigated TMS.
Results: M1 hotspots were spatially consistent between MRIindividual and MRIwarped_36 (insignificant deviation by 4.79 ± 2.62 mm). MEP thresholds and variance were also equivalent between MRIindividual and MRIwarped_36 with mean differences of RMT by -0.05 ± 2.28% maximum stimulator output (%MSO; t (19) = -0.09, p = 0.923), 500 μV-MT by -0.15 ± 1.63%MSO (t (19) = -0.41, p = 0.686) and MAD by 70.5 ± 214.38 μV (t (19) = 1.47, p = 0.158). Intraclass correlations (ICC) of motor thresholds were between 0.88 and 0.97.
Conclusions: NTMS examinations of M1 yield equivalent topographical and functional results using MRIindividual and MRIwarped if a sufficient number of registration points are used.Weniger anzeigen
The reliability of transferring species distribution models (SDMs) to new ranges and future climates has been widely debated. Biological invasions offer the unique opportunity to evaluate model transferability, as distribution data between species' native and introduced ranges are geographically independent of each other. Here, we performed the first global quantitative synthesis of the spatial transferability of SDMs for 235 invasive species and assessed the association of model transferability with the focal invader, model choice and parameterisation. We found that SDMs had limited spatial transferability overall. However, model transferability was higher for terrestrial endotherms, species introduced from or to the Southern Hemisphere, and species introduced more recently. Model transferability was also positively associated with the number of presences for model calibration and evaluation, respectively, but negatively with the number of predictors. These findings highlight the importance of considering the characteristics of the focal invader, environment and modelling in the application and assessment of SDMs.Weniger anzeigen
The Rum Layered Suite, NW Scotland, hosts Cr-spinel seams at the bases of peridotite-troctolite macro-rhythmic units in the eastern portion of the intrusion. Here, we present detailed field observations together with microstructural and mineral chemical analyses for the Unit 7-8 Cr-spinel seam and associated cumulates in the Eastern Layered Intrusion. Detailed mapping and sampling reveal significant lateral variations in the structural characteristics and mineral compositions of the Unit 7-8 boundary zone rocks. Although the Cr-spinel seam is laterally continuous over similar to 3 km, it is absent towards the centre and the margins of the intrusion. The compositional characteristics of Cr-spinel and plagioclase vary systematically along strike, exhibiting a chemical evolution towards more differentiated compositions with increasing distance from the main feeder conduit of the Rum intrusion; the Long Loch Fault. On the basis of our combined datasets, we propose that the upper part of the troctolite, the anorthosite layer underlying the Cr-spinel seam and the seam itself formed during a multi-stage magma replenishment event. The stages can be summarised as follows: (1) peridotite schlieren and anorthosite autoliths formed following melt infiltration and cumulate assimilation in the crystal mush of the Unit 7 troctolite. (2) The anorthosite layer then formed from the Unit 7 troctolite crystal mush by thermal erosion and dissolution due to infiltrating magma. (3) Subsequent dissolution of the anorthosite layer by new replenishing magma led to peritectic in situ crystallisation of the Unit 7-8 Cr-spinel seam, with (4) continued magma input eventually producing the overlying Unit 8 peridotite. In the central part of the Rum Layered Suite, the aforementioned assimilation of the troctolitic footwall formed the anorthosite layer. However, the absence of anorthosite in close proximity to the Long Loch Fault can be explained by enhanced thermochemical erosion close to the feeder zone, and its absence close to the margins of the intrusion, at maximum distance from the Long Loch Fault, may be due to cooling of the magma and loss of erosion potential. In line with other recent studies on PGE-bearing chromitites in layered intrusions, we highlight the importance of multi-stage intrusive magma replenishment to the formation of spatially coupled anorthosite and Cr-spinel seams, as well as the lateral mineral chemical variations observed in the Unit 7-8 boundary zone cumulates.Weniger anzeigen
Background: Sleepiness at the wheel affects 10% to 15% of drivers and is one major cause of death on highways with one-third of fatal accidents. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most common sleep disorders leading to sleepiness at the wheel. The aim of this study was to compare the psychomotor vigilance test reaction time (PVT RT) in OSA patients and controls (morning and afternoon) with the results of a divided attention steering simulator (DASS). A second purpose was to compare these results with the mean sleep latencies in the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) values and a neurocognitive test (test of attentional performance, TAP).
Patients and methods: Thirty eight OSA patients and 16 age and sex matched healthy controls were investigated by ESS, PVT, TAP, MSLT, and DASS (response time, failed responses, lane deviation, and off-road-events).
Results: With increasing age, the performance in the DASS decreased. There was no correlation between the DASS and the results of the MSLT and ESS. The controls showed a significantly faster DASS response time in the morning compared to OSA patients (median 2.1 versus 3.0; p=0.044) and fewer off-road events (9 versus 37; p=0.042). We found a moderate correlation between the PVT RT and all parameters of the DASS, as well as the TAP "alertness" subtest.
Conclusion: The increase of PVT RT as well as the decreased tonic alertness in the TAP in untreated OSA patients correlated with an impairment of simulated driving performance. The PVT and the TAP are both suitable diagnostic tools for measuring impaired driving ability in OSA patients. The MSLT did not correlate with the simulated driving performance. We recommend investigation of a longer version of the PVT in order to increase its sensitivity.Weniger anzeigen
Laboratory male mice are often housed individually due to aggressive behavior or experimental requirements, though social isolation can cause welfare issues. As a strategy to refine housing of male mice, we introduce the separated pair housing system. A perforated transparent wall divides the cage into two compartments and allows olfactory, acoustic, and visual communication between the two mice but prevents fighting and injuries. Long-term effects of separated pair housing on well-being and distress of adult male C57BL/6JRj mice were investigated and compared with both single- and group-housed mice. Behavioral analysis after eight weeks in three different housing systems revealed no differences in burrowing performance, social interaction, anxiety, and stress hormone concentrations. However, pair-housed mice built more complex nests compared to single-housed mice and the nest position suggested that pair-housed mice preferred the close proximity to their cage mates. Moreover, pair-housed mice showed less locomotor activity compared to group- and single-housed mice. Body weight was higher in group-housed mice. All in all, no unambiguous long-term beneficial effects of pair housing on the well-being were found. However, the findings emphasized that effects of the housing systems on behavioral, physical, and biochemical parameters must be considered in the design of animal experimental studies.Weniger anzeigen
Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a complex psychiatric disorder with a substantial genetic contribution. While the specific variants underlying OCD's heritability are still unknown, findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) corroborate the importance of common SNPs explaining the phenotypic variance in OCD. Investigating associations between the genetic liability for OCD, as reflected by a polygenic risk score (PRS), and potential endophenotypes of the disorder, such as the personality trait harm avoidance, may aid the understanding of functional pathways from genes to diagnostic phenotypes. Methods: We derived PRS for OCD at severalP-value thresholds based on the latest Psychiatric Genomics Consortium OCD GWAS (2688 cases, 7037 controls) in an independent sample of OCD patients (n = 180), their unaffected first-degree relatives (n = 108) and healthy controls (n = 200). Using linear regression, we tested whether these PRS are associated with the personality trait harm avoidance. Results: Results showed that OCD PRS significantly predicted OCD status, with patients having the highest scores and relatives having intermediate scores. Furthermore, the genetic risk for OCD was associated with harm avoidance across the entire sample, and among OCD patients. As indicated by mediation analyses, harm avoidance mediated the association between the OCD PRS and OCD caseness. These results were observed at multipleP-value thresholds and persisted after the exclusion of patients with a current comorbid major depressive or anxiety disorder. Conclusion: Our findings support the polygenic nature of OCD and further validate harm avoidance as a candidate endophenotype and diathesis of OCD.Weniger anzeigen
The aim of this study is to develop nanometer-thin epoxy-based films on aluminium alloy AA2024-T3 as a model coating system for high resolution corrosion studies. Spin coating was used for the layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of poly-(ethylenimine) (PEI) and poly([o-cresyl glycidyl ether]-co-formaldehyde) (CNER) bilayers. The film chemistry and the cross-linking process were characterized by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Ellipsometric data confirmed the linear increase of film thickness. The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results indicate the improvement of the film barrier properties with increasing film thickness. Mapping of the topography and the volta potential was performed by means of scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM). The results indicate the presence of a homogeneous film structure, while the intermetallic phases can still be identified below the coating. The SKPFM analysis confirmed that the model films are suitable for investigation of corrosion processes at the coating/metal interface.Weniger anzeigen
Isolation of biomolecules in vacuum facilitates characterization of the intramolecular interactions that determine three-dimensional structure, but experimental quantification of conformer thermochemistry remains challenging. Infrared spectroscopy of molecules trapped in helium nanodroplets is a promising methodology for the measurement of thermochemical parameters. When molecules are captured in a helium nanodroplet, the rate of cooling to an equilibrium temperature ofca.0.4 K is generally faster than the rate of isomerization, resulting in "shock-freezing" that kinetically traps molecules in local conformational minima. This unique property enables the study of temperature-dependent conformational equilibriaviainfrared spectroscopy at 0.4 K, thereby avoiding the deleterious effects of spectral broadening at higher temperatures. Herein, we demonstrate the first application of this approach to ionic species by coupling electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with helium nanodroplet infrared action spectroscopy to probe the structure and thermochemistry of deprotonated DNA dinucleotides. Dinucleotide anions were generated by ESI, confined in an ion trap at temperatures between 90 and 350 K, and entrained in traversing helium nanodroplets. The infrared action spectra of the entrained ions show a strong dependence on pre-pickup ion temperature, consistent with the preservation of conformer population upon cooling to 0.4 K. Non-negative matrix factorization was utilized to identify component conformer infrared spectra and determine temperature-dependent conformer populations. Relative enthalpies and entropies of conformers were subsequently obtained from a van't Hoff analysis. IR spectra and conformer thermochemistry are compared to results from ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and electronic structure methods. The implementation of ESI-MS as a source of dopant molecules expands the diversity of molecules accessible for thermochemical measurements, enabling the study of larger, non-volatile species.Weniger anzeigen