alīla and Dimna was translated from Pahlavi into Arabic in the 8th century AD by Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ, and it became an influential text in numerous literary cultures. Copyists in the Arabic manuscript tradition acted as coauthors, changing the text in ways both large and small. The modern scholarly tradition tends to see Kalīla and Dimna as part of a Fürstenspiegel genre or as an example of animal fables. What these categorizations overlook is the variegated medieval reception of the text, which was more multifaceted than is generally appreciated. The unruliness of the text's reception is the theme of this article, which explores the ways in which medieval readers categorized and reinterpreted Kalīla and Dimna over centuries, with special attention to Ibn al-Habbāriyya's late 11th-century dramatization of the divergent interpretations of Kalīla and Dimna. The article reveals that the interpreters of this text reconfigured its generic affiliation, making it a Quranic competitor, a repository of proverbs, an allegory for the soul, a source of law, and a model for storytelling that imparts practical wisdom.View less
In times of educational expansion, privileged families are looking for new strategies of distinction. Referring to Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of distinction, we argue that choosing Latin at school – a language that is no longer spoken and therefore has no direct value – is one of the strategies of privileged families to set themselves apart from less privileged families. Based on two surveys we conducted at German schools, the paper analyzes the relationship between parents’ educational background and the probability that their child will learn Latin. Results indicate that historically academic families have the strongest tendency towards learning Latin, followed by new academic families, and leaving behind the non-academic families. We distinguish between four causal mechanisms that might help to explain these associations: cultural distinction, selecting a socially exclusive learning environment, beliefs in a secondary instrumental function of learning Latin, and spatial proximity between the location of humanist Gymnasiums and the residential areas of privileged families. The hypotheses are formalized by means of Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG). Findings show that the decision to learn Latin is predominately an unintended consequence of the selection of a socially exclusive learning environment. In addition, there is evidence that especially children from historically academic families learn Latin as a strategy of cultural distinction.View less
Recent research has shown that book collecting by private individuals and institutions was a widespread phenomenon in Bilād al-Shām. At least from the Ayyubid period onwards, countless volumes were produced, changed hands in the book market, and lay around in libraries. To this day, Damascus occupies a central position in our knowledge about libraries and book culture in general, while other cities and regions lag behind. In this article, the inventory of an Aleppine book collector is used to take a glimpse at the book culture of Aleppo in the first decades of the seventeenth century. Although most probably not reflecting the sum total of his library, the inventory still allows to ascertain the specific taste of its compiler, an otherwise unknown Aleppine bibliophile. The inventory also provides evidence for the early distribution of Arabic print and pushes the door open for investigating the role of local agents in the early days of attempts by Orientalists to acquire Arabic manuscripts for European libraries.View less
Hegel's integration of the concept of Life in the Logic has long been disputed and rejected by many scholars. The most common objection was that it seemed counterintuitive to integrate an empirical phenomenon such as Life into a Logic that, in fact, ought to present an immanent development of pure concepts. Hegel was often accused of bringing empirical considerations into his Logic in order to develop his logical account of Life. Consequently, there has been a great discussion about the question as to whether a Logic is an appropriate place for this concept—a discussion that did not occur with respect to other categories in Hegel's Logic. Now, in contemporary literature on Hegel, there is a surge of genuine interest in Hegel's logical account of Life, accompanied by the insight that the concept of Life plays an important and indispensable role in Hegel's philosophy. However, what this role is precisely is a controversial issue.View less
The taxonomy of the genus Sticta in Hawaii is reassessed, based on a separately published molecular phylogeny using the fungal barcoding marker ITS. Based on Magnusson and Zahlbruckner's treatment from 1943 and Magnusson's catalogue from 1955, seven species of Sticta and three infraspecific taxa had been reported from the archipelago, all widespread except the putative endemic S. plumbicolor. Here we provide a taxonomic treatment of 13 taxa, 12 species and one subspecies, distinguished in a previous phylogenetic analysis: S. acyphellata, S. andina, S. antoniana, S. emmanueliana, S. flynnii, S. fuliginosa, S. hawaiiensis, S. limbata, S. plumbicolor, S. scabrosa subsp. hawaiiensis, S. smithii, S. tomentosa and S. waikamoi. All taxa are described, discussed and illustrated and a dichotomous key is presented. The implications of revised species taxonomies for studies in other fields such as ecology, ecophysiology, biogeography, biochemistry, and applications such as environmental monitoring are discussed. We also propose a protocol to use Sticta lichens to monitor the environmental health of Hawaiian ecosystems.View less
Ich möchte in diesem Artikel aufzeigen, dass ein Leben oder zumindest eine Fortexistenz des Subjekts nach dem physischen Tod aus anthropologischer Sicht durchaus nicht ausgeschlossen, die Fortexistenz einer Person durch die (vermeintliche) Übertragung ihres Geistes auf eine Festplatte (mind-uploading bzw. whole brain emulation) dagegen aus prinzipiellen Gründen unmöglich ist. Beide Thesen lassen sich durch eine Reflexion auf die humane Verfassung begründen.View less
By rewriting the relation 1+2=3 as √12+√22=√32 , a right triangle is looked at. Some geometrical observations in connection with plane parqueting lead to an inductive sequence of right triangles with √12+√22=√32 as initial one converging to the segment [0,1] of the real line. The sequence of their hypotenuses forms a sequence of real numbers which initiates some beautiful algebraic patterns. They are determined through some recurrence relations which are proper for being evaluated with computer algebra.View less
Given the significant amount of time that refugee and asylum-seeking children (RASC) spend in schools, these institutions play an important role in their lives and represent an ideal environment in which to help them to adapt to their host society. The present study aimed to draw attention to the possibility of transferring intervention methods designed for children with ASD to formal education settings welcoming newly arrived RASC to support their adaptation to their new school environment. For this purpose, a systematic review was undertaken to assess the feasibility of implementing three specific ASD intervention methods (i.e., TEACCH, PECS, and PMI) in schools welcoming RASC. While the review did not reveal previous attempts to implement and evaluate ASD intervention methods with newcomer RASC, 21 records were uncovered providing preliminary evidence in support of this idea. Hypothesized strengths and limitations, as well as considerations about implementation, are discussed.View less
Background: The safety of synthetic mesh in elective hernia repair in the setting of immunosuppression lacks national and international consensus. The aim of our analysis was to explore the effects of immunosuppression on the rates of wound complications.
Methods: Comparative analysis of immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients with elective mesh repair of inguinal, femoral, primary ventral, incisional or parastomal hernia between January 2001 and December 2013. Immunosuppression included glucocorticoids, biologicals, chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. Primary outcome parameter was mesh infection rate. Follow-up questionnaires were completed in written form or by telephone interview.
Results: Questionnaire response rate was 59.5% (n= 194) with a median follow-up of 33 (interquartile range: 28-41) months. There were no differences between immunocompromised (n= 40, 20.6%) and immunocompetent patients (n= 154, 79.4%) based on hernia and patient characteristics. Immunosuppression was not associated with the rates of mesh infection (P= 1.000), surgical site infection (SSI,P= 0.330) or re-operation for SSI (P= 0.365), but with higher rates (P= 0.007) and larger odds for hernia recurrence (odds ratio 3.264, 95% confidence interval 1.304-8.172;P= 0.012). Mesh infection also increased the odds for hernia recurrence (odds ratio 11.625; 95% confidence interval 1.754-77.057;P= 0.011). Only in the subset of ventral/incisional hernias, immunocompromised (n= 8, 40%) patients had higher recurrence rates than immunocompetent patients (n= 5, 11.6%;P= 0.017). Patients with SSI reported more frequently moderate to severe dysesthesia at the surgical site (P= 0.013) and would less frequently re-consent to surgery (P= 0.006). Conclusion Immunosuppression does not increase the rate of wound infections after elective hernia repair with synthetic mesh. However, immunosuppression and mesh infection are risk factors for hernia recurrence.View less
Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT-) cells represent a semi-invariant T cell population responsive to microbial vitamin B metabolite and innate cytokine stimulation, executing border tissue protection and particularly contributing to human liver immunity. The impact of immunosuppressants on MAIT cell biology alone and in context with solid organ transplantation has not been thoroughly examined. Here, we demonstrate that in vitro cytokine activation of peripheral MAIT cells from healthy individuals was impaired by glucocorticoids, whereas antigen-specific stimulation was additionally sensitive to calcineurin inhibitors. In liver transplant (LTx) recipients, significant depletion of peripheral MAIT cells was observed that was largely independent of the type and dosage of immunosuppression, equally applied to tolerant patients, and was reproducible in kidney transplant recipients. However, MAIT cells from tolerant LTx patients exhibited a markedly diminished ex vivo activation signature, associated with individual regain of functional competence toward antigenic and cytokine stimulation. Still, MAIT cells from tolerant and treated liver recipients exhibited high levels of PD1, accompanied by functional impairment particularly toward bacterial stimulation that also affected polyfunctionality. Our data suggest interlinked effects of primary liver pathology and immunosuppressive treatment on overall MAIT cell fitness after transplantation and propose their monitoring in context with tolerance induction protocols.View less
Problem: From conception, a delicate regulation of galectins, a family of carbohydrate-binding proteins, is established to ensure maternal immune tolerance in pregnancy. Though galectin-3 (gal-3), the only chimera-type galectin, is abundantly expressed at the feto-maternal interface; the physiological role of this lectin during pregnancy remains to be fully elucidated and requires further investigation. Method of study: In this study, we analyzed serum gal-3 levels during the course of healthy gestation. Trophoblast functions were evaluated upon gal-3 exogenous stimulation using trophoblastic cell lines (e.g. , HIPEC65, SGHPL-4, and BeWo cells). Finally, we investigated variations in peripheral gal-3 levels associated with the development of spontaneous abortion and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Results: Gal-3 circulating levels increased as normal pregnancy progressed. In vitro experiments showed that exogenous gal-3 positively regulated trophoblast functions inducing invasion, tube formation, and fusion. Compared with normal pregnant women, circulating gal-3 levels were significantly decreased in patients who developed GDM. Conclusion: Our results reveal a physiological role for gal-3 during pregnancy, promoting proper trophoblast functions associated with healthy gestation. GDM is associated with a failure to increase circulating gal-3 levels late in gestation. Thus, dysregulation of gal-3 may indicate a contribution of the chimera-type lectin to this adverse pregnancy outcome.View less
Hand hyperphalangism leading to shortened index fingers with ulnar deviation, hallux valgus, mild facial dysmorphism and respiratory compromise requiring assisted ventilation are the key features of Chitayat syndrome. This condition results from the recurrent heterozygous missense variant NM_006494.2:c.266A>G; p.(Tyr89Cys) inERFon chromosome 19q13.2, encoding the ETS2 repressor factor (ERF) protein. The pathomechanism of Chitayat syndrome is unknown. To date, seven individuals with Chitayat syndrome and the recurrent pathogenicERFvariant have been reported in the literature. Here, we describe six additional individuals, among them only one presenting with a history of assisted ventilation, and the remaining presenting with variable pulmonary phenotypes, including one individual without any obvious pulmonary manifestations. Our findings widen the phenotype spectrum caused by the recurrent pathogenic variant inERF, underline Chitayat syndrome as a cause of isolated skeletal malformations and therefore contribute to the improvement of diagnostic strategies in individuals with hand hyperphalangism.View less
Introduction: Approximately 21% of Germany's inhabitants or their parents have been born abroad. There is evidence that immigrant women are starting antenatal care later than nonimmigrants. In Berlin, equality in health care access had improved until 2011-2012, leaving only women with Low German language proficiency and an insecure residence status particularly at risk. With the recent influx of refugees, we analyzed whether access to antenatal and postpartum care differs depending on immigration, residence status, income, and education.
Methods: At our Berlin tertiary care center, a modified version of the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire was administered to women who delivered in the first half of 2017. Multivariate modeling compared nonimmigrant women, immigrants, and women who are direct descendants of immigrants.
Results: The study included 184 nonimmigrant women, 214 immigrant women, and 62 direct descendants of immigrants. Germany is relatively good in prenatal care for immigrant women, as most are getting adequate prenatal care. However, 21% of immigrants compared with 11% of nonimmigrant women started pregnancy care after the first trimester (P = .03). Low income was a more powerful predictor than immigration status for starting prenatal care after the first trimester. Immigrant women (23%) were less informed on postpartum care availability than nonimmigrants (3%) and used less postpartum midwifery care.
Conclusions: When designing health care interventions for immigrant women, not only migration-specific factors should be considered but also low income as a barrier to access to maternity care.View less
Das elektronische Verwaltungshandeln prägt in immer stärkerem Maße die Verwaltungspraxis. Durch die aktuelle Corona-Krise hat sich diese Entwicklung weiter intensiviert. Über die Bestimmungen des Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetzes (VwVfG) wird es darüber hinaus zunehmend prüfungsrelevant. In dem Beitrag soll ein systematisierter Überblick über das elektronische Verwaltungshandeln vermittelt werden. Nach einer terminologischen Einführung werden zunächst die rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen dargelegt und aktuelle Entwicklungslinien skizziert. Die weitere Darstellung orientiert sich sodann an der klassischen Handlungsformenlehre. Im Mittelpunkt steht daher der Verwaltungsakt. Auch wenn primär Aspekte behandelt werden, die bereits heute Eingang in die Rechtsordnung gefunden haben, sollen zugleich Ausblicke auf künftige Entwicklungen gewährt werden.View less
The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has a drastic impact on national health care systems. Given the overwhelming demand on facility capacity, the impact on all health care sectors has to be addressed. Solid organ transplantation represents a field with a high demand on staff, intensive care units, and follow-up facilities. The great therapeutic value of organ transplantation has to be weighed against mandatory constraints of health care capacities. In addition, the management of immunosuppressed recipients has to be reassessed during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In addressing these crucial questions, transplant physicians are facing a total lack of scientific evidence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to offer an approach of consensus-based guidance, derived from individual information of 22 transplant societies. Key recommendations were extracted and the degree of consensus among different organizations was calculated. A high degree of consensus was found for temporarily suspending nonurgent transplant procedures and living donation programs. Systematic polymerase chain reaction-based testing of donors and recipients was broadly recommended. Additionally, more specific aspects (eg, screening of surgical explant teams and restricted use of marginal donor organs) were included in our analysis. This study offers a novel approach to informed guidance for health care management when a priori no scientific evidence is available.View less
Der Beitrag zeigt – in der Darstellungsweise eines klassischen Dramas – einige klausurrelevante Themen des Schuld- und Sachenrechts auf, die allesamt auch jenseits des Heiligabends bedeutsam werden können. Der Reigen reicht von den gesetzlichen und vertraglichen Verschuldensmaßstäben über die werkvertragliche Gewährleistung und das Gleichbehandlungsrecht bis hin zu Fragen des Schenkungsrechts sowie des Eigentums- und Besitzübergangs. Ganz nebenbei erfährt man, wieso sich bei der Deliktshaftung in der Lebenswirklichkeit meist andere Beteiligte gegenüberstehen als in Klausuraufgaben. Kleine Ausflüge ins Feiertagsrecht in Prolog und Epilog runden den Beitrag ab.View less
Catel-Manzke syndrome, also known as micrognathia-digital-syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the combination of the two cardinal features Pierre-Robin sequence and bilateral hyperphalangy leading to ulnar clinodactyly (ulnar curvature of the phalanges) and radial deviation (radial angulation at the metacarpophalangeal joint) of the index fingers. Individuals without one of these major hallmarks or with additional hand malformations have been described as atypical or Catel-Manzke-like syndrome. Biallelic TGDS pathogenic variants have thus far been detected in eight individuals with typical Catel-Manzke syndrome and in one fetus with additional features. Here we report on two individuals with TGDS pathogenic variants who presented with mild radial deviation and ulnar clinodactyly of the index fingers but without radiologic signs of hyperphalangy. Furthermore, both individuals have disproportionate short stature, a feature that has not yet been associated with Catel-Manzke syndrome. Our data broaden the phenotypic spectrum of TGDS-associated Catel-Manzke syndrome and expand the indication for diagnostic testing.View less