Background: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) may cause difficult-to-treat symptoms of the airways, skin, or gastrointestinal tract in hypersensitive patients. Due to the chemical relationship between salicylic acid and ASA, a role of a low-salicylate diet has been discussed.
Methods: This review evaluates whether low salicylate diets are meaningful from an allergological or nutritional–physiological perspective.
Results: The body’s arachidonic acid metabolism plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of ASA intolerance. Despite their chemical affinity, ASA and salicylic acid affect the arachidonic pathway differently. The intake of salicylic acid with food is low compared to therapeutic doses of ASA. There is increasing evidence that protective effects of a high fruit and vegetables diet is related in part to the intake of salicylates. In salicylatelow diets, fruit and vegetables are reduced, harboring the risk of an insufficient diet and malnutrition.
Conclusion: Dietary therapy in ASA-intolerant patients is not recommended.Weniger anzeigen
Throughout the last decades, integration programmes in Western Europe have centrally revolved around debates on Muslim populations and the institutionalization of Islam. The concept of integration has become a master paradigm with which to structure plurality of immigration societies across Western Europe. Critically reflecting this inflation, this article argues that the integration of Muslims is animated by a contingent liberal-secular matrix through which the sovereign state, in close connection with civil society, is enabled to decide what counts as proper and improper religion. Integration directed toward Muslims as a “religious minority” is therefore indicative of the very problems that it purports to resolve. In a genealogical vein, the article begins by suggesting that integration is a liberal “recursion” of earlier projects of minority management such as assimilation and conditional recognition within emerging nation-states. It argues that the epistemological ground which animated the assimilatory forces of the modern nation-state has been intimately bound by an imperial knowledge order which classifies and hierarchizes people along a race-religion nexus. The analysis continues by dwelling on contemporary examples of state organized dialog with Muslims, and more specifically the establishment of Islamic Theology Chairs at state universities. Through these examples the article shows that the institutionalization of Islam in Europe reconfigures a pattern which conditionally embraces religious difference, while at the same time continuing hierarchical rankings and by transforming it to make it fit for religion's legitimate place in public life. Finally, the article suggests that the somatic aspirations prevalent in assimilation projects and imperial race-religion constellations are both inscribed and concealed in the frequent invocation of Muslims to reveal their loyalty to the liberal-secular contract by bracketing their religious sensibilities for the sake of secular reason.Weniger anzeigen
Recent progress in studies of holographic dualities, originally motivated by insights from string theory, has led to a confluence with concepts and techniques from quantum information theory. A particularly successful approach has involved capturing holographic properties by means of tensor networks which not only give rise to physically meaningful correlations of holographic boundary states, but also reproduce and refine features of quantum error correction in holography. This topical review provides an overview over recent successful realizations of such models. It does so by building on an introduction of the theoretical foundations of AdS/CFT and necessary quantum information concepts, many of which have themselves developed into independent, rapidly evolving research fields.Weniger anzeigen
A new genus, Caucasoseris, is established to accommodate Prenanthes abietina, a species of hitherto uncertain systematic position distributed in the western Caucasus and northeasternmost Turkey in montane conifer and mixed forests. Agreement has existed that the species belongs somewhere in the Crepidinae or Lactucinae but its morphological features do not match any genus and previous molecular phylogenetic analyses could not establish its sister group. This study provides additional micro- and macromorphological, palynological and anatomical data, and used a molecular phylogenetic sampling designed to ascertain its relationship. A sister group relationship with the Chondrillinae is inferred from the phylogenetic tree based on nrITS. In the plastid DNA tree, where the Chondrillinae are resolved as a clade nested inside the Crepidinae, the species is resolved further remote from the Chondrillinae clade and in a rather early diverging position of the Crepidinae. In agreement also with the anatomical and micro- and macromorphological findings, it is considered an orphan lineage with affinities to the Chondrillinae, best treated as a genus of its own. A key to the genera of the Chondrillinae including Caucasoseris is provided.Weniger anzeigen
Quality early childhood development (ECD) settings that address children's needs holistically provide safe and nurturing opportunities for children to thrive. We evaluated, through a quasi-experimental design, the impact of a social-emotional skills-building program (Pisotón) across ECD centers in Colombia. Developmental outcomes of children participating in Pisotón (n = 37) for 12 weeks were compared to those of children who did not participate in the program (n = 37) using the International Development and Early Learning Assessment (IDELA) measure and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The results show that participation in Pisotón significantly increased children's social-emotional development score by 0.37 standard deviation units as assessed by IDELA. Study implications are discussed.Weniger anzeigen
In many songbird species, young birds learn their song from adult conspecifics. Like much animal communication, birdsong is multimodal: singing is accompanied by beak and body movements. We hypothesized that these visual cues could enhance vocal learning thus partly explaining the reduced learning from unimodal audio playbacks compared to multimodal live social tutoring observed in many birdsong studies. To test this, juvenile zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, were tutored in a yoked design where replicate tutoring groups of three male–female dyads were exposed to the same live tutor simultaneously in three different ways. (1) Tutees were housed with the tutor in a central compartment; hence they could hear, see and interact with their tutor (‘live’). (2) Tutees placed in one of two adjacent compartments could hear but not see the same tutor from behind a black loudspeaker cloth (‘audio-only’). (3) Tutees could likewise hear the tutor through loudspeaker cloth but could also see the tutor through a one-way mirror (‘audiovisual’). Comparisons of subadult and adult song showed more changes in the audio-only than in the audiovisual or live tutored tutees, suggesting the audio-only group's song development was delayed. According to (blinded) human observer similarity scoring, the audio-only tutees' singing was least similar and the live tutees' singing most similar to their tutor's singing, while the audiovisual tutees showed an intermediate level of similarity, but the between-treatment differences in similarity were not significant. Conversely, the audio-only group showed the highest similarity values with their father's song, which they only heard before the experimental tutoring. Given that the quantity and quality of the tutor song input were the same across treatments within tutoring groups, the results support the hypothesis that visual in addition to auditory exposure to a tutor can affect the timing and possibly also the amount of vocal learning.Weniger anzeigen
Viral integration is a complex biological process, and it is useful to have a reference integration dataset with known properties to compare experimental data against, or for comparing with the results from computational tools that detect integration. To generate these data, we developed a pipeline for simulating integrations of a viral or vector genome into a host genome. Our method reproduces more complex characteristics of vector and viral integration, including integration of sub-genomic fragments, structural variation of the integrated genomes, and deletions from the host genome at the integration site. Our method  takes the form of a snakemake  pipeline, consisting of a Python  script using the Biopython  module that simulates integrations of a viral reference into a host reference. This produces a reference containing integrations, from which sequencing reads are simulated using ART . The IDs of the reads crossing integration junctions are then annotated using another python script to produce the final output, consisting of the simulated reads and a table of the locations of those integrations and the reads crossing each integration junction. To illustrate our method, we provide simulated reads, integration locations, as well as the code required to simulate integrations using any virus and host reference. This simulation method was used to investigate the performance of viral integration tools in our research .Weniger anzeigen
Topological electronic phases exist in a variety of naturally occurring materials but can also be created artificially. We used a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope to create dimerized chains of identical quantum dots on a semiconductor surface and to demonstrate that these chains give rise to one-dimensional topological phases. The dots were assembled from charged adatoms, creating a confining potential with single-atom precision acting on electrons in surface states of the semiconductor. Coupling between the dots leads to electronic states localized at the ends of the chains, as well as at deliberately created internal domain walls, in agreement with the predictions of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy also reveals deviations from this well-established model manifested in an asymmetric level spectrum and energy shifts of the boundary states. The deviations arise because the dots are charged and hence lead to an onsite potential that varies along the chain. We show that this variation can be mitigated by electrostatic gating using auxiliary charged adatoms, enabling fine-tuning of the boundary states and control of their superposition. The experimental data, which are complemented by theoretical modeling of the potential and the resulting eigenstates, reveal the important role of electrostatics in these engineered quantum structures.Weniger anzeigen
We study inhomogeneous quantum quenches in the attractive regime of the sine-Gordon model. In our protocol, the system is prepared in an inhomogeneous initial state in finite volume by coupling the topological charge density operator to a Gaussian external field. After switching off the external field, the subsequent time evolution is governed by the homogeneous sine-Gordon Hamiltonian. Varying either the interaction strength of the sine-Gordon model or the amplitude of the external source field, an interesting transition is observed in the expectation value of the soliton density. This affects both the initial profile of the density and its time evolution and can be summarised as a steep transition between behaviours reminiscent of the Klein-Gordon, and the free massive Dirac fermion theory with initial external fields of high enough magnitude. The transition in the initial state is also displayed by the classical sine-Gordon theory and hence can be understood by semi-classical considerations in terms of the presence of small amplitude field configurations and the appearance of soliton excitations, which are naturally associated with bosonic and fermionic excitations on the quantum level, respectively. Features of the quantum dynamics are also consistent with this correspondence and comparing them to the classical evolution of the density profile reveals that quantum effects become markedly pronounced during the time evolution. These results suggest a crossover between the dominance of bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom whose precise identification in terms of the fundamental particle excitations can be rather non-trivial. Nevertheless, their interplay is expected to influence the sine-Gordon dynamics in arbitrary inhomogeneous settings.Weniger anzeigen
Although sustainable forestry methods such as Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) have lower impacts on biodiversity compared to conventional logging, the direct and indirect effects of RIL are poorly understood. Additionally, studies focusing on specific habitats may fail to detect cross-habitat impact variation or the effect on taxa which utilize multiple habitats, i.e. amphibians. We therefore investigated the responses of amphibians in stream and terrestrial habitats to RIL and its direct/indirect impacts. We analysed data from anuran communities sampled before and after RIL within the Deramakot forest reserve in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Using multi-species community occupancy models, we determined species and community responses to RIL and covariates representing the direct (leaf depth and canopy closure) and indirect (distance to logging roads and skid trails) effects of logging. Diversity profiles and dissimilarity indices derived from occupancy model results were used to identify shifts in diversity/evenness and community dissimilarity respectively following RIL. Indirect logging impacts (distance to logging roads/skid trails), proved a better predictor of amphibian occupancy in stream habitats compared to direct logging impacts (leaf litter depth shifts), with the opposite trend observed in terrestrial habitats. Anurans in stream and terrestrial sites exhibited greater dissimilarity and community occupancy after logging compared to control sites, with all diversity metrics (species richness, Shannon and Simpson diversity) increasing in logged stream sites. These findings, contrary to our expectations, suggest that whilst amphibian species in different habitats exhibit variable responses to direct and indirect RIL impacts, they exhibit similar community level responses to RIL across habitats.Weniger anzeigen
The first millennium BCE was pivotal for the environment and for human societies in Central and Eastern Eurasia because transformations accelerated and altered natural and cultural landscapes to hitherto unknown dimensions. Among the major driving forces was the increasing use of horse riding, which extended range of movement significantly and led to the development of cavalry units as a part of large armies. Empires with enormous outreach and gravitational pull formed and disintegrated in close dependence. The wide spread of military technologies demonstrates their bonds, though mostly in the form of metal objects due to the inherent survivability of their materials. Equipment and protective clothing of organic material, albeit produced in large numbers and thus an economic and environmental factor, are rarely preserved. In Yanghai cemetery site, Turfan, the remains of one leather scale armour were discovered. In this study, the results of the AMS radiocarbon dating as well as the construction details of the Yanghai find are presented and compared with a contemporary armour of unknown origin in the Metropolitan Museum of Art New York (MET) and with finds and depictions from the Near East, the adjacent northern steppe areas and the territory of China. The armour, datable to 786–543 cal BCE (95% probability), was originally made of about 5444 smaller scales and 140 larger scales, which, together with leather laces and lining, had a total weight of ca. 4–5 kg. Our reconstruction demonstrates that it can be donned quickly and without the help of another person by wrapping the left part around the back, tying it to the right part under the right arm and fastening with thongs crosswise over the back to laces at the opposite hip parts. Fitting different statures, it is a light and highly efficient defensive garment. In age, construction details and aesthetic appearance it resembles the MET armour. The stylistic similarities but constructional differences suggest that the two armours were intended as outfits for distinct units of the same army, i.e. light cavalry and heavy infantry, respectively. As such a high level of standardization of military equipment during the 7th century BCE is only known for the Neo-Assyrian military forces, we suggest that the place of manufacture of both armours was the Neo-Assyrian Empire. If this supposition is correct, then the Yanghai armour is one of the rare actual proofs of West-East technology transfer across the Eurasian continent during the first half of the first millennium BCE, when social and economic transformation enhanced.Weniger anzeigen
Background: Promoting a disruptive innovation in microsurgery, exoscopes promise alleviation of physical strain and improved image quality through digital visualization during microneurosurgical interventions. This study investigates the impact of a novel 3D4k hybrid exoscope (i.e., combining digital and optical visualization) on surgical performance and team workflow in preclinical and clinical neurosurgical settings.
Methods: A pre-clinical workshop setting has been developed to assess usability and implementability through skill-based scenarios (neurosurgical participants n = 12). An intraoperative exploration in head and spine surgery (n = 9) and a randomized clinical study comparing ocular and monitor mode in supratentorial brain tumor cases (n = 20) followed within 12 months. Setup, procedure, case characteristics, surgical performance, and user experience have been analyzed for both ocular group (OG) and monitor group (MG).
Results: Brain tumor cases using frontal, frontoparietal, or temporal approaches have been identified as favorable use cases for introducing exoscopic neurosurgery. Mean monitor distance and angle were 180 cm and 10°. Surgical ergonomics when sitting improved significantly in MG compared with OG (P = .03). Hand-eye coordination required familiarization in MG. Preclinical data showed a positive correlation between lateral camera inclination and impact on hand-eye coordination (rs = 0.756, P = .01). There was no significant added surgical time in MG. Image quality in current generation 3D4k monitors has been rated inferior to optic visualization yet awaits updates.
Conclusions: The hybrid exoscopic device can be integrated into established neurosurgical workflows. Currently, exoscopic interventions seem most suited for cranial tumor surgery in lesions that are not deep-seated. Ergonomics improve in monitor mode compared to conventional microsurgery.Weniger anzeigen
Background: Increasing technico-manual complexity of procedures and time constraints necessitates effective neurosurgical training. For this purpose, both screen- and model-based simulations are under investigation. Approaches including 3D printed brains, gelatin composite models, and virtual environments have already been published. However, quality of brain surgery simulation is limited due to discrepancies in visual and haptic experience. Similarly, virtual training scenarios are still lacking sufficient real-world resemblance. In this study, we introduce a novel simulator for realistic neurosurgical training that combines real brain tissue with 3D printing and augmented reality.
Methods: Based on a human CT scan, a skull base and skullcap were 3D printed and equipped with an artificial dura mater. The cerebral hemispheres of a calf’s brain were placed in the convexity of the skullcap and tumor masses composed of aspic, water, and fluorescein were injected in the brain. The skullcap and skull base were placed on each other, glued together, and filled up with an aspic water solution for brain fixation. Then, four surgical scenarios were performed in the operating room as follows: (1) simple tumor resection, (2) complex tumor resection, (3) navigated biopsy via burr hole trepanation, and (4) retrosigmoidal craniotomy. Neuronavigation, augmented reality, fluorescence, and ocular—as well as screen-based (exoscopic)—surgery were available for the simulator training. A total of 29 participants performed at least one training scenario of the simulator and completed a 5-item Likert-like questionnaire as well as qualitative interviews. The questionnaire assessed the realism of the tumor model, skull, and brain tissue as well as the capability for training purposes.
Results: Visual and sensory realism of the skull and brain tissue were rated,”very good,” while the sensory and visual realism of the tumor model were rated “good.” Both overall satisfaction with the model and eligibility of the microscope and neurosurgical instruments for training purposes were rated with “very good.” However, small size of the calf’s brain, its limited shelf life, and the inability to simulate bleedings due to the lack of perfusion were significant drawbacks.
Conclusion: The combination of 3D printing and real brain tissue provided surgical scenarios with very good real-life resemblance. This novel neurosurgical model features a versatile setup for surgical skill training and allows for efficient training of technological support like image and fluorescence guidance, exoscopic surgery, and robotic technology.Weniger anzeigen
Background: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for evacuation of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has shown promise but there remains a need for intraoperative performance assessment considering the wide range of evacuation effectiveness. In this feasibility study, we analyzed the benefit of intraoperative 3-dimensional imaging during navigated endoscopy-assisted ICH evacuation by mechanical clot fragmentation and aspiration.
Methods: 18 patients with superficial or deep supratentorial ICH underwent MIS for clot evacuation followed by intraoperative computerized tomography (iCT) or cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging. Eligibility for MIS required (a) availability of intraoperative iCT or CBCT, (b) spontaneous lobar or deep ICH without vascular pathology, (c) a stable ICH volume (20–90 ml), (d) a reduced level of consciousness (GCS 5–14), and (e) a premorbid mRS ≤ 1. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic patient data were analyzed by two independent observers.
Results: Nine female and 9 male patients with a median age of 76 years (42–85) presented with an ICH score of 3 (1–4), GCS of 10 (5–14) and ICH volume of 54 ± 26 ml. Clot fragmentation and aspiration was feasible in all cases and intraoperative imaging determined an overall evacuation rate of 80 ± 19% (residual hematoma volume: 13 ± 17 ml; p < 0.0001 vs. Pre-OP). Based on the intraoperative imaging results, 1/3rd of all patients underwent an immediate re-aspiration attempt. No patient experienced hemorrhagic complications or required conversion to open craniotomy. However, routine postoperative CT imaging revealed early hematoma re-expansion with an adjusted evacuation rate of 59 ± 30% (residual hematoma volume: 26 ± 37 ml; p < 0.001 vs. Pre-OP).
Conclusions: Routine utilization of iCT or CBCT imaging in MIS for ICH permits direct surgical performance assessment and the chance for immediate re-aspiration, which may optimize targeting of an ideal residual hematoma volume and reduce secondary revision rates.Weniger anzeigen
Purpose: With the spread of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS), portosystemic shunt surgery (PSSS) has decreased and leaves more complex patients with great demands for accurate preoperative planning. The aim was to evaluate the role of imaging for predicting the most suitable PSSS approach.
Material and methods: Forty-four patients who underwent PSSS (2002 to 2013) were examined by contrast-enhanced CT (n = 33) and/or MRI (n = 15) prior to surgery. Imaging was analyzed independently by two observers (O1 and O2) with different levels of experience (O1 > O2). They recommended two shunting techniques (vessels and anastomotic variant) for each patient and ranked them according to their appropriateness and complexity. Findings were compared with the actually performed shunt procedure and its outcome.
Results: The first two choices taken together covered the performed PSSS regarding vessels in 88%/100% (CT/MRI, O1) and 76%/73% (O2); and vessels + anastomosis in 79%/73% (O1) and 67%/60% (O2). The prediction of complex surgical procedures (resection of interposing structures, additional thrombectomy, use of a collateral vessel, and use of a graft interposition) was confirmed in 87%, resulting in 80% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Larger shunt vessel distances were associated with therapy failure (p = 0.030) and a vessel distance of ≥ 20 mm was identified as optimal cutoff, in which a graft interposition was used. There was no significant difference between MRI and CT in predicting the intraoperative decisions (p = 0.294 to 1.000).
Conclusion: Preoperative imaging and an experienced radiologist can guide surgeons in PSSS. CT and MRI provide the information necessary to identify technically feasible variants and complicating factors.Weniger anzeigen
Blooms of microalgae on glaciers and ice sheets are amplifying surface ice melting rates, which are already affected by climate change. Most studies on glacial microorganisms (including snow and glacier ice algae) have so far focused on the spring and summer melt season, leading to a temporal bias, and a knowledge gap in our understanding of the variations in microbial diversity, productivity, and physiology on glacier surfaces year-round. Here, we investigated the microbial communities from Icelandic glacier surface snow and bare ice habitats, with sampling spanning two consecutive years and carried out in both winter and two summer seasons. We evaluated the seasonal differences in microbial community composition using Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS marker genes and correlating them with geochemical signals in the snow and ice. During summer, Chloromonas, Chlainomonas, Raphidonema, and Hydrurus dominated surface snow algal communities, while Ancylonema and Mesotaenium dominated the surface bare ice habitats. In winter, algae could not be detected, and the community composition was dominated by bacteria and fungi. The dominant bacterial taxa found in both winter and summer samples were Bacteriodetes, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. The winter bacterial communities showed high similarities to airborne and fresh snow bacteria reported in other studies. This points toward the importance of dry and wet deposition as a wintertime source of microorganisms to the glacier surface. Winter samples were also richer in nutrients than summer samples, except for dissolved organic carbon—which was highest in summer snow and ice samples with blooming microalgae, suggesting that nutrients are accumulated during winter but primarily used by the microbial communities in the summer. Overall, our study shows that glacial snow and ice microbial communities are highly variable on a seasonal basis.Weniger anzeigen
Originally applied on domestic and lab animals, assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs) have also found application in conservation breeding programs, where they can make the genetic management of populations more efficient, and increase the number of individuals per generation. However, their application in wildlife conservation opens up new ethical scenarios that have not yet been fully explored. This study presents a frame for the ethical analysis of the application of ART procedures in conservation based on the Ethical Matrix (EM), and discusses a specific case study—ovum pick-up (OPU) procedures performed in the current conservation efforts for the northern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni)—providing a template for the assessment of ART procedures in projects involving other endangered species.Weniger anzeigen
Why have feminists in Mexico been arguing with women's groups and against the state over the criminalization of digital violence, and what do these struggles mean for its governance? This article analyzes the social struggles surrounding passage of the Olimpia Law of 2019, which criminalizes digital violence in Mexico. Although criminalization of digital violence as a means of governing online behavior has recently attracted much attention globally, this study proposes that such measures can, at the same time, put at risk the human rights of women actively participating in the political realm (human rights defenders, activists, and journalists). I further contend that governing digital violence is not so much a regulatory question but should, rather, be understood as a field of struggle among diverse collective projects. Thus, I argue that there is a need to further reconceptualize digital violence against women in politics as a way to address the multiplicity of actors and perspectives involved in internet governance. Following textual analysis of documents from feminist organizations arguing against the criminalization of digital violence, I conclude by proposing public policies to fight this phenomenon beyond criminalization.Weniger anzeigen