Depressive symptoms are often accompanied by cognitive impairments and recurrent depressive episodes are discussed as a potential risk for dementia. Especially, stressful life events are considered a potent risk factor for depression. Here, we induced recurrent stress-induced depressive episodes over the life span of rats, followed by cognitive assessment in the symptom-free period. Rats exposed to stress-induced depressive episodes learned faster than control rats. A high degree of stress-induced depressive-like behavior early in the paradigm was a predictor of improved cognitive performance, suggesting induction of resilience. Subsequently, exposure to lorazepam prior to stress-induced depressive episodes and cognitive testing in a nonaversive environment prevented the positive effect. This indicates a beneficial effect of the stress-associated situation, with the existence of individual coping abilities. Altogether, stress may in some have a beneficial effect, yet for those individuals unable to tackle these aversive events, consecutive unpleasant episodes may lead to worse cognitive performance later in life.Weniger anzeigen
Refractory anaphylaxis (unresponsive to treatment with at least two doses of minimum 300 μg adrenaline) is a rare and often fatal hypersensitivity reaction. Comprehensive data on its definition, prevalence, and risk factors are missing. Using the data from the European Anaphylaxis Registry (11,596 cases in total) we identified refractory anaphylaxis cases (n = 42) and analyzed these in comparison to a control group of severe anaphylaxis cases (n = 4,820). The data show that drugs more frequently elicited refractory anaphylaxis (50% of cases, p < 0.0001) compared to other severe anaphylaxis cases (19.7%). Cases elicited by insects (n = 8) were more often due to bees than wasps in refractory cases (62.5 vs. 19.4%, p = 0.009). The refractory cases occurred mostly in a perioperative setting (45.2 vs. 9.05, p < 0.0001). Intramuscular adrenaline (as a first line therapy) was administered in 16.7% of refractory cases, whereas in 83.3% of cases it was applied intravenously (significantly more often than in severe anaphylaxis cases: 12.3%, p < 0.0001). Second line treatment options (e.g., vasopression with dopamine, methylene blue, glucagon) were not used at all for the treatment of refractory cases. The mortality rate in refractory anaphylaxis was significantly higher (26.2%) than in severe cases (0.353%, p < 0.0001). Refractory anaphylaxis is associated with drug-induced anaphylaxis in particular if allergens are given intravenously. Although physicians frequently use adrenaline in cases of perioperative anaphylaxis, not all patients are responding to treatment. Whether a delay in recognition of anaphylaxis is responsible for the refractory case or whether these cases are due to an overflow with mast cell activating substances-requires further studies. Reasons for the low use of second-line medication (i.e., methylene blue or dopamine) in refractory cases are unknown, but their use might improve the outcome of severe refractory anaphylaxis cases.Weniger anzeigen
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the imaging properties of hepatic metastases in 68Ga-PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with prostate cancer (PC).
68Ga-PSMA-PET/CT scans of PC patients available in our database were evaluated retrospectively for liver metastases. Metastases were identified using 68Ga-PSMA-PET, CT, MRI and follow-up scans. Different parameters including, maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the healthy liver and liver metastases were assessed by two- and three-dimensional regions of interest (2D/3D ROI).
One hundred three liver metastases in 18 of 739 PC patients were identified. In total, 80 PSMA-positive (77.7%) and 23 PSMA-negative (22.3%) metastases were identified. The mean SUVmax of PSMA-positive liver metastases was significantly higher than that of the normal liver tissue in both 2D and 3D ROI (p ≤ 0.05). The mean SUVmax of PSMA-positive metastases was 9.84 ± 4.94 in 2D ROI and 10.27 ± 5.28 in 3D ROI; the mean SUVmax of PSMA-negative metastases was 3.25 ± 1.81 in 2D ROI and 3.40 ± 1.78 in 3D ROI, and significantly lower than that of the normal liver tissue (p ≤ 0.05). A significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlation between SUVmax in PSMA-positive liver metastases and both size (ρSpearman = 0.57) of metastases and PSA serum level (ρSpearman = 0.60) was found.
In 68Ga-PSMA-PET, the majority of liver metastases highly overexpress PSMA and is therefore directly detectable. For the analysis of PET images, it has to be taken into account that also a significant portion of metastases can only be detected indirectly, as these metastases are PSMA-negative.Weniger anzeigen
The role of psychosocial and structural occupational factors in mental health service provision has broadly been researched. However, less is known about the influence of employees' occupational factors on inmates in correctional treatment settings that mostly seek to apply a milieu-therapeutic approach. Therefore, the present study investigated the relationships between occupational factors (job satisfaction, self-efficacy, and the functionality of the organizational structure) and prison climate, the number of staff members' sick days as well as inmates' treatment motivation. Employees (n = 76) of three different correctional treatment units in Berlin, Germany, rated several occupational factors as well as prison climate. At the same time, treatment motivation of n = 232 inmates was assessed. Results showed that higher ratings of prison climate were associated with higher levels of team climate, job satisfaction and the functionality of the organizational structure, but not with self-efficacy and sick days. There was no significant relationship between occupational factors and the perceived safety on the treatment unit. Inmates' treatment motivation was correlated with all aggregated occupational factors and with average sick days of staff members. Outcomes of this study strongly emphasize the importance of a positive social climate in correctional treatment units for occupational factors of prison staff but also positive treatment outcomes for inmates. Also, in the light of these results, consequences for daily work routine and organizational structure of prisons are discussed.Weniger anzeigen
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report on a rare case of its primary oral manifestation that was treated successfully with the BRAF-specific agent, vemurafenib, after insufficient standard LCH treatment. This case underlines the importance of proper diagnosis and the evaluation of targeted therapy as a valuable tool in LCH treatment. Furthermore, the close collaboration of surgeons, oncologists, and dentists is mandatory to ensure adequate treatment, restore the stomatognathic system in debilitating post-treatment situations, improve quality of life, and ensure effective disease control in infants and young patients.Weniger anzeigen
Alterations of structure and density of cortical bone are associated with fragility fractures and can be assessed in vivo in humans at the tibia. Bone remodeling deficits in aging women have been recently linked to an increase in size of cortical pores. In this ex vivo study, we characterized the cortical microarchitecture of 19 tibiae from human donors (aged 69 to 94 years) to address, whether this can reflect impairments of the mechanical competence of the proximal femur, i.e., a major fracture site in osteoporosis. Scanning acoustic microscopy (12 μm pixel size) provided reference microstructural measurements at the left tibia, while the bone vBMD at this site was obtained using microcomputed tomography (microCT). The areal bone mineral density of both left and right femoral necks (aBMDneck) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), while homogenized nonlinear finite element models based on high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography provided hip stiffness and strength for one-legged standing and sideways falling loads. Hip strength was associated with aBMDneck (r = 0.74 to 0.78), with tibial cortical thickness (r = 0.81) and with measurements of the tibial cross-sectional geometry (r = 0.48 to 0.73) of the same leg. Tibial vBMD was associated with hip strength only for standing loads (r = 0.59 to 0.65). Cortical porosity (Ct.Po) of the tibia was not associated with any of the femoral parameters. However, the proportion of Ct.Po attributable to large pores (diameter > 100 μm) was associated with hip strength in both standing (r = -0.61) and falling (r = 0.48) conditions. When added to aBMDneck, the prevalence of large pores could explain up to 17% of the femur ultimate force. In conclusion, microstructural characteristics of the tibia reflect hip strength as well as femoral DXA, but it remains to be tested whether such properties can be measured in vivo.Weniger anzeigen
Invasion biology is a thriving ecological research field, and confusingly many hypotheses, concepts, and ideas about biological invasions populate today's literature. Moreover, some of these hypotheses are very similar, whereas others contradict each other. It is not clear whether in such a situation a plausible global relational structure—or map—of these hypotheses emerges in the minds of the involved researchers and, if so, how this map can be reliably reconstructed from the expertise of individuals. Here, we report results of an online survey with 357 experts on invasion biology and several reconstructions of such a map. Using the distance information between hypotheses provided in the survey, the resulting network is essentially random. This finding implies that invasion biologists currently do not have a joint vision how invasion hypotheses are related to each other. However, the pattern of pairwise familiarities between the hypotheses in the survey yields joint‐mentions networks with highly non‐random features. These networks allow us to assign conceptual roles to many of the hypotheses in the field on purely topological grounds. Such hypothesis networks can help everyone interested in research fields to understand their conceptual structure. They can serve as maps of research fields.Weniger anzeigen
This chapter analyses how ethnic transnational identities are manifested and negotiated on the social networking sites used by Latvian migrants. Although migrants as well as other people use various personal media, including Skype, chat apps such as WhatsApp and telephones, social networking sites stand out with the diversity of functions in migrant communication. This includes one-to-one exchanges, group communication and the ability to locate and connect with users who may or may not be familiar offline. We argue that social networking sites and particularly thematic groups on these sites that migrants create and join serve as forums or bulletin boards where they exchange practical information and are able to communicate with other Latvians who live nearby – and that these uses have implications for the communication of identity. The empirical data in the chapter comes from 20 semi-structured interviews with Latvian migrants who live in a variety of countries and were recruited for the study on social networking sites, as well as survey data, all of which were collected within the research project The Emigrant Communities of Latvia: National Identity, Transnational Relations and Diaspora Politics. The results demonstrate that migrant interactions on social networking sites do not necessarily lead to the homogenisation of migrants’ conception of what ‘being a Latvian’ means. The increased ability to maintain associations with diverse online and offline social circles provides a migrant with a variety of identity elements to associate with. As a result, hybrid identities may emerge. A migrant can identify with the host society yet still reject some of its characteristics – and choose Latvian alternatives instead.Weniger anzeigen
Chicken egg yolk is an easily available source for the isolation of sialylglycopeptides (SGP) carrying homogenous biantennary N-glycans. This approach has gained much attention in the last decade since these SGPs can easily be used for the semi-synthesis of glycoconjugates circumventing laborious full-synthetic methodologies. Here we report an optimised, significantly shorter (one day instead of five) and environmentally friendly procedure for the mg scale isolation of SGP using commercially available egg yolk powder. A single chromatographic step following chloroform/methanol precipitation of proteins and lipids yielded desired approximately 200 mg SGP from 250 g egg yolk powder within a day.
•Environmentally friendly procedure for isolation of sialylglycopeptide from Egg yolk powder. •Reduced the protocol from five days down to one.Weniger anzeigen
Understanding the in vivo redox biology of cells is a complex albeit important biological problem. Studying redox processes within living cells without physical disruption or chemical modifications is essential in determining the native redox states of cells. In this study, the previously characterized reduction-oxidation sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP2) was used to elucidate the redox changes of the genetically engineered Escherichia coli strain, SHuffle. SHuffle cells were demonstrated to be under constitutive oxidative stress and responding transcriptionally in an OxyR-dependent manner. Using roGFP2 fused to either glutathione (GSH)- or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- sensitive proteins (glutaredoxin 1 or Orp1), the cytosolic redox state of both wild type and SHuffle cells based on GSH/GSSG and H2O2 pools was measured. These probes open the path to in vivo studies of redox changes and genetic selections in prokaryotic hosts.Weniger anzeigen
The September 2018, Mw 7.5 Sulawesi earthquake occurring on the Palu-Koro strike-slip fault system was followed by an unexpected localized tsunami. We show that direct earthquake-induced uplift and subsidence could have sourced the observed tsunami within Palu Bay. To this end, we use a physics-based, coupled earthquake–tsunami modeling framework tightly constrained by observations. The model combines rupture dynamics, seismic wave propagation, tsunami propagation and inundation. The earthquake scenario, featuring sustained supershear rupture propagation, matches key observed earthquake characteristics, including the moment magnitude, rupture duration, fault plane solution, teleseismic waveforms and inferred horizontal ground displacements. The remote stress regime reflecting regional transtension applied in the model produces a combination of up to 6 m left-lateral slip and up to 2 m normal slip on the straight fault segment dipping 65∘ East beneath Palu Bay. The time-dependent, 3D seafloor displacements are translated into bathymetry perturbations with a mean vertical offset of 1.5 m across the submarine fault segment. This sources a tsunami with wave amplitudes and periods that match those measured at the Pantoloan wave gauge and inundation that reproduces observations from field surveys. We conclude that a source related to earthquake displacements is probable and that landsliding may not have been the primary source of the tsunami. These results have important implications for submarine strike-slip fault systems worldwide. Physics-based modeling offers rapid response specifically in tectonic settings that are currently underrepresented in operational tsunami hazard assessment.Weniger anzeigen
The rapidly increasing dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in both humans and animals poses a global threat to public health. However, the transmission of CRE between humans and animals has not yet been well studied.
We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and drivers of CRE transmission between humans and their backyard animals in rural China.
We conducted a comprehensive sampling strategy in 12 villages in Shandong, China. Using the household [residents and their backyard animals (farm and companion animals)] as a single surveillance unit, we assessed the prevalence of CRE at the household level and examined the factors associated with CRE carriage through a detailed questionnaire. Genetic relationships among human- and animal-derived CRE were assessed using whole-genome sequencing–based molecular methods.
A total of 88 New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases –type carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (NDM-EC), including 17 from humans, 44 from pigs, 12 from chickens, 1 from cattle, and 2 from dogs, were isolated from 65 of the 746 households examined. The remaining 12 NDM-EC were from flies in the immediate backyard environment. The NDM-EC colonization in households was significantly associated with a) the number of species of backyard animals raised/kept in the same household, and b) the use of human and/or animal feces as fertilizer. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) revealed that a large proportion of the core genomes of the NDM-EC belonged to strains from hosts other than their own, and several human isolates shared closely related core single-nucleotide polymorphisms and blaNDM
genetic contexts with isolates from backyard animals.
To our knowledge, we are the first to report evidence of direct transmission of NDM-EC between humans and animals. Given the rise of NDM-EC in community and hospital infections, combating NDM-EC transmission in backyard farm systems is needed. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5251Weniger anzeigen
Introduction: This population-based study aimed to fill the knowledge gap on Human Papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and associated sociodemographic risk factors of the general population in the North Tongu District, Ghana. These results are needed to guide cervical cancer prevention efforts, as the leading type of female cancers. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 2002 women in the North Tongu District, Ghana investigated HPV prevalence and associated sociodemographic risk factors. Women were recruited by geographical distribution through the local community-based health system and samples collected using a self-sampling device. For HPV genotyping BSGP5+/6+-PCR with Luminex-MPG readout was used. Multivariate logistic regression analyzed sociodemographic risk factors for HPV positivity. Results: Of 2002 self-collected samples, 1943 were eligible, contained sufficient DNA and provided valid HPV genotyping results. Prevalence of single high risk HPV types was 32.3% and of multiple high risk types 9.7%. The five most common detected HPV types were HPV16 (7.4%; 95%CI: 6.3–8.7), HPV52 (7.2%; 95%CI: 6.1–8.5), HPV35 (4.8%; 95%CI: 3.9–5.8), HPV59 (4.7%; 95%CI: 3.8–5.8), HPV56 (3.9%; 95%CI: 3.1–4.8). Highest prevalence was observed among women aged 18–24 years, while age 25–54 years was inversely associated with high risk HPV positivity in multivariate analysis. Sociodemographic risk factors identified were i) having any sexual partner, ii) more partners increased the odds for high risk HPV positivity, iii) independently from this marital status, in particular not being married. Discussion & conclusion: Most importantly, the high risk HPV prevalence detected from this study is higher than estimates reported for Western Africa. This needs be considered, when deciding on the cervical cancer screening algorithms introduced on a wider scale. Follow-up and triage, depending on the methods chosen, can easily overburden the health system. Self-sampling worked well and provided adequate samples for HPV-based screening. Women with increasing number of sexual partners and not being married were found to have higher odds of being high risk HPV positive, therefore could be a higher prioritized screening target group.Weniger anzeigen
Purpose: Melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) is overexpressed in melanoma and may be a molecular target for imaging and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. 68Gallium (68Ga) labeling of DOTA-conjugated peptides is an established procedure in the clinic for use in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Aim of this study was to compare a standard labeling protocol against the 68Ga-DOTA peptide purified from the excess of unlabeled peptide. Procedures: The MC1R ligand DOTA-NAPamide was labeled with 68Ga using a standard clinical protocol. Radioactive peptide was separated from the excess of unlabeled DOTA-NAPamide by HPLC. Immediately after the incubation of peptide and 68Ga (95˚C, 15 min), the reaction was loaded on a C18 column and separated by a water/acetonitrile gradient, allowing fractionation in less than 20 minutes. Radiolabeled products were compared in biodistribution studies and PET imaging using nude mice bearing MC1R-expressing B16/F1 xenograft tumors. Results: In biodistribution studies, non-purified 68Ga-DOTA-NAPamide did not show significant uptake in the tumor at 1 h post injection (0.78% IA/g). By the additional HPLC step, the molar activity was raised around 10,000-fold by completely removing unlabeled peptide. Application of this rapid purification strategy led to a more than 8-fold increase in tumor uptake (7.0% IA/g). The addition of various amounts of unlabeled DOTA-NAPamide to the purified product led to a blocking effect and decreased specific tumor uptake, similar to the result seen with non-purified radiopeptide. PET imaging was performed using the same tracer preparations. Purified 68Ga-DOTA-NAPamide, in comparison, showed superior tumor uptake. Conclusions: We demonstrated that chromatographic separation of radiolabeled from excess unlabeled peptide is technically feasible and beneficial, even for short-lived isotopes such as 68Ga. Unlabeled peptide molecules compete with receptor binding sites in the target tissue. Purification of the radiopeptide therefore improved tumor uptake.Weniger anzeigen
Seit 2018 unterstützt die Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin die Veröffentlichung von Forschungsergebnissen in Open-Access-Zeitschriften durch einen eigenen Fonds für Publikationsgebühren. Die Etablierung und Fortführung des Publikationsfonds aus Mitteln der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) und der Charité soll es Angehörigen der Charité erleichtern, ihre wissenschaftliche Arbeit in qualitätsgeprüften Open-Access-Zeitschriften zu veröffentlichen und sie damit Forschenden und der interessierten Öffentlichkeit weltweit frei zugänglich zu machen.Weniger anzeigen
This study examines paratexts and images in works of primatology. In order to classify generic traits of primatographical publications, all paratexts, images and narrative positions of a large corpus of such monographs were registered. The analysis of these data allows for the determination of three distinct genres: scientific books, illustrated books and autobiographical/popular science books. The paratexts also reveal the strategies employed in the presentation of the books: They address a lay public, underline scientific objectivity or generate authenticity. The form of the texts indicate the audiences that the books address and enact an intimate relationship between non-human primates and human beings. Images showing researchers in close contact with non-human primates as well as paratexts addressing monkeys or calling for their preservation and conservation embed these field studies within a Christian iconography, invoke the life of saints or martyrs and appeal to the empathy of the readership.Weniger anzeigen
The R package emdi enables the estimation of regionally disaggregated indicators using small area estimation methods and includes tools for processing, assessing, and presenting the results. The mean of the target variable, the quantiles of its distribution, the headcount ratio, the poverty gap, the Gini coefficient, the quintile share ratio, and customized indicators are estimated using direct and model-based estimation with the empirical best predictor (Molina and Rao 2010). The user is assisted by automatic estimation of datadriven transformation parameters. Parametric and semi-parametric, wild bootstrap for mean squared error estimation are implemented with the latter offering protection against possible misspecification of the error distribution. Tools for (a) customized parallel computing, (b) model diagnostic analyses, (c) creating high quality maps and (d) exporting the results to Excel and OpenDocument Spreadsheets are included. The functionality of the package is illustrated with example data sets for estimating the Gini coefficient and median income for districts in Austria.Weniger anzeigen
Immunological responses of hibernating mammals are suppressed at low body temperatures, a possible explanation for the devastating effect of the white-nose syndrome on hibernating North American bats. However, European bats seem to cope well with the fungal causative agent of the disease. To better understand the immune response of hibernating bats, especially against fungal pathogens, we challenged European greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis) by inoculating the fungal antigen zymosan. We monitored torpor patterns, immune gene expressions, different aspects of the acute phase response and plasma oxidative status markers, and compared them with sham-injected control animals at 30 min, 48 h and 96 h after inoculation. Torpor patterns, body temperatures, body masses, white blood cell counts, expression of immune genes, reactive oxygen metabolites and non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity did not differ between groups during the experiment. However, zymosan injected bats had significantly higher levels of haptoglobin than the control animals. Our results indicate that hibernating greater mouse-eared bats mount an inflammatory response to a fungal challenge, with only mild to negligible consequences for the energy budget of hibernation. Our study gives a first hint that hibernating European bats may have evolved a hibernation-adjusted immune response in order to balance the trade-off between competent pathogen elimination and a prudent energy-saving regime.Weniger anzeigen
Negative interactions have been suggested as a major barrier for species arriving in a new habitat. More recently, positive interactions drew attention from community assembly theory and invasion science. The invasional meltdown hypothesis (IMH) introduced the idea that positive interactions among non-native species could facilitate one another’s invasion, even increasing their impact upon the native community. Many studies have addressed IMH, but with contrasting results, reflecting various types of evidence on a multitude of scales. Here we use the hierarchy-of-hypotheses (HoH) approach to differentiate key aspects of IMH, organizing and linking empirical studies to sub-hypotheses of IMH. We also assess the level of empirical support for each sub-hypothesis based on the evidence reported in the studies. We identified 150 studies addressing IMH. The majority of studies support IMH, but the evidence comes from studies with different aims and questions. Supporting studies at the community or ecosystem level are currently rare. Evidence is scarce for marine habitats and vertebrates. Few sub-hypotheses are questioned by more than 50% of the evaluated studies, indicating that non-native species do not affect each other’s survival, growth, reproduction, abundance, density or biomass in reciprocal A ↔ B interactions. With the HoH for IMH presented here, we can monitor progress in empirical tests and evidences of IMH. For instance, more tests at the community and ecosystem level are needed, as these are necessary to address the core of this hypothesis.Weniger anzeigen