Dargestellt sind die Ergebnisse der Kerndokumentation der regionalen kooperativen Rheumazentren des Berichtsjahres 2022. Es gibt Angaben zur Krankheitsaktivität, Medikation und nicht-medikamentöser Behandlung. Viele Patient:innen-berichtete Angaben zur Funktionskapazität, dem Krankheitseinfluss, depressiven Symptomen und weitere sind angegeben.
The role of stress and its neuroendocrine mediators in tinnitus is unclear. In this study, we measure cortisol as an indicator of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a marker of adaptive neuroplasticity in hair of chronic tinnitus patients to investigate relationships with tinnitus-related and psychological factors. Cross-sectional data from chronic tinnitus inpatients were analyzed. Data collection included hair sampling, pure tone audiometry, tinnitus pitch and loudness matching, and psychometric questionnaires. Elastic net regressions with n-fold cross-validation were performed for cortisol (N = 91) and BDNF (N = 87). For hair-cortisol (R-2 = 0.10), the strongest effects were sampling in autumn and body-mass index (BMI) (positive), followed by tinnitus loudness (positive) and smoking (negative). For hair-BDNF (R-2 = 0.28), the strongest effects were hearing aid use, shift work (positive), and tinnitus loudness (negative), followed by smoking, tinnitus-related distress (Tinnitus Questionnaire), number of experienced traumatic events (negative), and physical health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 Health Survey) (positive). These findings suggest that in chronic tinnitus patients, higher perceived tinnitus loudness is associated with higher hair-cortisol and lower hair-BDNF, and higher tinnitus-related distress with lower hair-BDNF. Regarding hair-BDNF, traumatic experiences appear to have additional stress-related effects, whereas hearing aid use and high physical health-related quality of life appear beneficial. Implications include the potential use of hair-cortisol and hair-BDNF as biomarkers of tinnitus loudness or distress and the need for intensive future research into chronic stress-related HPA axis and neuroplasticity alterations in chronic tinnitus.View less
Background: Ambient air pollution poses a major risk for the development and aggravation of respiratory diseases. Evidence suggests that even in low-level air pollution environments there is a risk for an increase in adverse respiratory symptoms. We examined whether variations in daily air pollution levels of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, or particulate matter in Berlin, Germany were associated with hospital admissions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma patients in a time series analysis.
Methods: We calculated single and multi-pollutant models, investigated possible lags in effect, and analysed the influence of meteorological variables on the results. Data from January 2005 through December 2015 were used to quantify the concentration-response.
Results: The risk ratio for asthma patients to be hospitalised on the same day of NO2 exposure was 1.101 per 10 mu g/m(3) NO2 increase (95% CI: 1.013 to 1.195), for COPD patients 1.123 (95% CI: 1.081 to 1.168). Neither the exposure to ozone (95% CI: 0.904 to 1.020), PM10 (95% CI: 0.990 to 1.127), nor PM2.5 (95% CI: 0.981 to 1.148) was associated with an increased risk ratio for asthma patients to be hospitalised. Risk ratios for the hospital admission of COPD patients were also not increased due to ozone (95% CI: 0.981 to 1.033), PM10 (95% CI: 0.988 to 1.032), or PM2.5 (95% CI: 0.966 to 1.019) exposure. The presented risk ratios and confidence intervals relate to the day of exposure. We found no increased hospitalisation risks with a delayed occurrence on subsequent days.
Conclusions: A quantifiable, statistically significant increase in risk for asthma and COPD exacerbations owing to NO2 exposure at levels well below European regulatory limit values was observed.View less
Background: Standard treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) of the extremities includes limb-sparing surgery combined with pre- or postoperative radiotherapy (RT). The role of perioperative chemotherapy (CTX) remains uncertain. STS patients with high-risk features for local recurrence, distant metastases, and increased mortality may require additional systemic therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate predictors of outcome regarding local control (LC), overall survival (OS), and freedom from distant metastases (FFDM) in a large single-center cohort of patients suffering from localized high-grade STS (grade 2/3, G2/G3). Special emphasis was put on a subgroup of patients who received combined neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT).
Methods: Overall, 115 adult STS patients were included in this retrospective study. The median follow-up was 34 months. Twenty-three patients (20.0%) were treated with neoadjuvant RCT, 92 (80.0%) received other therapies (adjuvant RT alone (n = 58); neoadjuvant CTX + adjuvant RT (n = 17); adjuvant RCT (n = 10), neoadjuvant RT alone (n = 7)). To assess potential prognostic factors on LC, OS, and FFDM, univariate (UVA) and multivariable (MVA) Cox proportional hazards models were applied.
Results: UVA showed significantly better LC rates in the neoadjuvant RCT group (p = 0.025), with trends in MVA (p = 0.057). The 3-year LC rate was 89.7% in the neoadjuvant RCT group vs. 75.6% in the "other therapies" group. UVA also showed significantly better OS rates in the neoadjuvant RCT group (p = 0.049), however, this was not confirmed in MVA (p = 0.205), the 3-year OS rate was 85.8% for patients treated with neoadjuvant RCT compared to 73.5% in the "other therapies" group. UVA showed significantly better FFDM rates in (p = 0.018) and a trend towards better FFDM rates in MVA (p = 0.059). The 3-year FFDM rate was 89.7% for patients treated with neoadjuvant RCT compared to 65.9% in the "other therapies" group. In the subgroup of patients with G3 STS, neoadjuvant RCT was a significant positive predictor of LC and FFDM in MVA (p = 0.047, p = 0.027) but not for OS. Overall grade 3 and 4 toxicities were significantly higher (p = 0.019) in the neoadjuvant RCT group and occurred in 73.9% vs. 38.0% in patients receiving other therapies.
Conclusions: The results suggest that neoadjuvant RCT might improve LC and FFDM in patients with localized G3 STS while also being associated with increased acute complication rates. Further prospective research is warranted to confirm these findings.View less
Background: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) represent a diverse group of rare malignant tumors. Currently, five to six weeks of preoperative radiotherapy (RT) combined with surgery constitute the mainstay of therapy for localized high-grade sarcomas (G2-G3). Growing evidence suggests that shortening preoperative RT courses by hypofractionation neither increases toxicity rates nor impairs oncological outcomes. Instead, shortening RT courses may improve therapy adherence, raise cost-effectiveness, and provide more treatment opportunities for a wider range of patients. Presumed higher rates of adverse effects and worse outcomes are concerns about hypofractionated RT (HFRT) for STS. This systematic review summarizes the current evidence on preoperative HFRT for the treatment of STS and discusses toxicity and oncological outcomes compared to normofractionated RT.
Methods: We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials describing outcomes for preoperative HFRT in the management of STS using PubMed, the Cochrane library, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, Embase, and Ovid Medline. We followed the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Trials on retroperitoneal sarcomas, postoperative RT, and hyperthermia were excluded. Articles published until November 30th, 2021, were included.
Results: Initial search yielded 94 articles. After removal of duplicate and ineligible articles, 13 articles qualified for analysis. Eight phase II trials and five retrospective analyses were reviewed. Most trials applied 5 x 5 Gy preoperatively in patients with high-grade STS. HFRT courses did not show increased rates of adverse events compared to historical trials of normofractionated RT. Toxicity rates were mostly comparable or lower than in trials of normofractionated RT. Moreover, HFRT achieved comparable local control rates with shorter duration of therapy. Currently, more than 15 prospective studies on HFRT + / - chemotherapy are ongoing.
Conclusions: Retrospective data and phase II trials suggest preoperative HFRT to be a reasonable treatment modality for STS. Oncological outcomes and toxicity profiles were favorable. To date, our knowledge is mostly derived from phase II data. No randomized phase III trial comparing normofractionated and HFRT in STS has been published yet. Multiple ongoing phase II trials applying HFRT to investigate acute and late toxicity will hopefully bring forth valuable findings.View less
Emerging evidence points towards a regulatory role of the circadian clock in alternative splicing (AS). Whether alterations in core-clock components may contribute to differential AS events is largely unknown. To address this, we carried out a computational analysis on recently generated time-series RNA-seq datasets from three core-clock knockout (KO) genes (ARNTL, NR1D1, PER2) and WT of a colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line, and time-series RNA-seq datasets for additional CRC and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) cells, murine WT, Arntl KO, and Nr1d1/2 KO, and murine SCN WT tissue. The deletion of individual core-clock genes resulted in the loss of circadian expression in crucial spliceosome components such as SF3A1 (in ARNTL(KO)), SNW1 (in NR1D1(KO)), and HNRNPC (in PER2(KO)), which led to a differential pattern of KO-specific AS events. All HCT116(KO) cells showed a rhythmicity loss of a crucial spliceosome gene U2AF1, which was also not rhythmic in higher progression stage CRC and HL cancer cells. AS analysis revealed an increase in alternative first exon events specific to PER2 and NR1D1 KO in HCT116 cells, and a KO-specific change in expression and rhythmicity pattern of AS transcripts related to cancer hallmarks genes including FGFR2 in HCT116_ARNTL(KO), CD44 in HCT116_NR1D1(KO), and MET in HCT116_PER2(KO). KO-specific changes in rhythmic properties of known spliced variants of these genes (e.g. FGFR2 IIIb/FGFR2 IIIc) correlated with epithelial-mesenchymal-transition signalling. Altogether, our bioinformatic analysis highlights a role for the circadian clock in the regulation of AS, and reveals a potential impact of clock disruption in aberrant splicing in cancer hallmark genes.View less
Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) translate evidence into recommendations to improve patient care and outcomes. To provide an overview of schizophrenia CPGs, we conducted a systematic literature review of English-language CPGs and synthesized current recommendations for the acute and maintenance management with antipsychotics. Searches for schizophrenia CPGs were conducted in MEDLINE/Embase from 1/1/2004-12/19/2019 and in guideline websites until 06/01/2020. Of 19 CPGs, 17 (89.5%) commented on first-episode schizophrenia (FES), with all recommending antipsychotic monotherapy, but without agreement on preferred antipsychotic. Of 18 CPGs commenting on maintenance therapy, 10 (55.6%) made no recommendations on the appropriate maximum duration of maintenance therapy, noting instead individualization of care. Eighteen (94.7%) CPGs commented on long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs), mainly in cases of nonadherence (77.8%), maintenance care (72.2%), or patient preference (66.7%), with 5 (27.8%) CPGs recommending LAIs for FES. For treatment-resistant schizophrenia, 15/15 CPGs recommended clozapine. Only 7/19 (38.8%) CPGs included a treatment algorithm.View less
While the axolotl's ability to completely regenerate amputated limbs is well known and studied, the mechanism of axolotl bone fracture healing remains poorly understood. One reason might be the lack of a standardized fracture fixation in axolotl. We present a surgical technique to stabilize the osteotomized axolotl femur with a fixator plate and compare it to a non-stabilized osteotomy and to limb amputation. The healing outcome was evaluated 3 weeks, 3, 6 and 9 months post-surgery by microcomputer tomography, histology and immunohistochemistry. Plate-fixated femurs regained bone integrity more efficiently in comparison to the non-fixated osteotomized bone, where larger callus formed, possibly to compensate for the bone fragment misalignment. The healing of a non-critical osteotomy in axolotl was incomplete after 9 months, while amputated limbs efficiently restored bone length and structure. In axolotl amputated limbs, plate-fixated and non-fixated fractures, we observed accumulation of PCNA(+) proliferating cells at 3 weeks post-injury similar to mouse. Additionally, as in mouse, SOX9-expressing cells appeared in the early phase of fracture healing and amputated limb regeneration in axolotl, preceding cartilage formation. This implicates endochondral ossification to be the probable mechanism of bone healing in axolotls. Altogether, the surgery with a standardized fixation technique demonstrated here allows for controlled axolotl bone healing experiments, facilitating their comparison to mammals (mice).View less
Beta-band activity in the subthalamic local field potential (LFP) is correlated with Parkinson's disease (PD) symptom severity and is the therapeutic target of deep brain stimulation (DBS). While beta fluctuations in PD patients are well characterized on shorter timescales, it is not known how beta activity evolves around the diurnal cycle, outside a clinical setting. Here, we obtained chronic recordings (34 +/- 13 days) of subthalamic beta power in PD patients implanted with the Percept DBS device during high-frequency DBS and analysed their diurnal properties as well as sensitivity to artifacts. Time of day explained 41 +/- 9% of the variance in beta power (p < 0.001 in all patients), with increased beta during the day and reduced beta at night. Certain movements affected LFP quality, which may have contributed to diurnal patterns in some patients. Future DBS algorithms may benefit from taking such diurnal and artifactual fluctuations in beta power into account.View less
Adaptive deep brain stimulation (aDBS) is a promising concept for feedback-based neurostimulation, with the potential of clinical implementation with the sensing-enabled Percept neurostimulator. We aim to characterize chronic electrophysiological activity during stimulation and to validate beta-band activity as a biomarker for bradykinesia. Subthalamic activity was recorded during stepwise stimulation amplitude increase OFF medication in 10 Parkinson's patients during rest and finger tapping. Offline analysis of wavelet-transformed beta-band activity and assessment of inter-variable relationships in linear mixed effects models were implemented. There was a stepwise suppression of low-beta activity with increasing stimulation intensity (p = 0.002). Low-beta power was negatively correlated with movement speed and predictive for velocity improvements (p < 0.001), stimulation amplitude for beta suppression (p < 0.001). Here, we characterize beta-band modulation as a chronic biomarker for motor performance. Our investigations support the use of electrophysiology in therapy optimization, providing evidence for the use of biomarker analysis for clinical aDBS.View less
The European project ORCHESTRA intends to create a new pan-European cohort to rapidly advance the knowledge of the effects and treatment of COVID-19. Establishing processes that facilitate the merging of heterogeneous clusters of retrospective data was an essential challenge. In addition, data from new ORCHESTRA prospective studies have to be compatible with earlier collected information to be efficiently combined. In this article, we describe how we utilized and contributed to existing standard terminologies to create consistent semantic representation of over 2500 COVID-19-related variables taken from three ORCHESTRA studies. The goal is to enable the semantic interoperability of data within the existing project studies and to create a common basis of standardized elements available for the design of new COVID-19 studies. We also identified 743 variables that were commonly used in two of the three prospective ORCHESTRA studies and can therefore be directly combined for analysis purposes. Additionally, we actively contributed to global interoperability by submitting new concept requests to the terminology Standards Development Organizations.View less
The superior colliculus is a midbrain structure that plays important roles in visually guided behaviors in mammals. Neurons in the superior colliculus receive inputs from retinal ganglion cells but how these inputs are integrated in vivo is unknown. Here, we discovered that high-density electrodes simultaneously capture the activity of retinal axons and their postsynaptic target neurons in the superior colliculus, in vivo. We show that retinal ganglion cell axons in the mouse provide a single cell precise representation of the retina as input to superior colliculus. This isomorphic mapping builds the scaffold for precise retinotopic wiring and functionally specific connection strength. Our methods are broadly applicable, which we demonstrate by recording retinal inputs in the optic tectum in zebra finches. We find common wiring rules in mice and zebra finches that provide a precise representation of the visual world encoded in retinal ganglion cells connections to neurons in retinorecipient areas.View less
A subset of patients has long-lasting symptoms after mild to moderate Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In a prospective observational cohort study, we analyze clinical and laboratory parameters in 42 post-COVID-19 syndrome patients (29 female/13 male, median age 36.5 years) with persistent moderate to severe fatigue and exertion intolerance six months following COVID-19. Further we evaluate an age- and sex-matched postinfectious non-COVID-19 myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome cohort comparatively. Most post-COVID-19 syndrome patients are moderately to severely impaired in daily live. 19 post-COVID-19 syndrome patients fulfill the 2003 Canadian Consensus Criteria for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome. Disease severity and symptom burden is similar in post-COVID-19 syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and non-COVID-19/myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients. Hand grip strength is diminished in most patients compared to normal values in healthy. Association of hand grip strength with hemoglobin, interleukin 8 and C-reactive protein in post-COVID-19 syndrome/non-myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and with hemoglobin, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, bilirubin, and ferritin in post-COVID-19 syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome may indicate low level inflammation and hypoperfusion as potential pathomechanisms.View less
Despite two years of intense global research activity, host genetic factors that predispose to a poorer prognosis of COVID-19 infection remain poorly understood. Here, we prioritise eight robust (e.g., ELF5) or suggestive but unreported (e.g., RAB2A) candidate protein mediators of COVID-19 outcomes by integrating results from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative with population-based plasma proteomics using statistical colocalisation. The transcription factor ELF5 (ELF5) shows robust and directionally consistent associations across different outcome definitions, including a >4-fold higher risk (odds ratio: 4.88; 95%-CI: 2.47-9.63; p-value < 5.0 × 10-6) for severe COVID-19 per 1 s.d. higher genetically predicted plasma ELF5. We show that ELF5 is specifically expressed in epithelial cells of the respiratory system, such as secretory and alveolar type 2 cells, using single-cell RNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry. These cells are also likely targets of SARS-CoV-2 by colocalisation with key host factors, including ACE2 and TMPRSS2. In summary, large-scale human genetic studies together with gene expression at single-cell resolution highlight ELF5 as a risk gene for severe COVID-19, supporting a role of epithelial cells of the respiratory system in the adverse host response to SARS-CoV-2.View less
Background: Serratia marcescens may cause severe nosocomial infections, mostly in very low birth weight infants. Since S. marcescens exhibits by far the highest adjusted incidence rate for horizontal transmission, it can cause complex outbreak situations in neonatal intensive care units.
Objective: The aim of this study was to establish a fast and highly sensitive colonization screening for prompt cohorting and barrier nursing strategies.
Methods: A probe-based duplex PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene of S. marcescens was developed and validated by using 36 reference strains, 14 S. marcescens outbreak- and nonoutbreak isolates, defined by epidemiological linkage and molecular typing, and applied in 1,347 clinical specimens from 505 patients.
Results and Conclusions: The novel PCR assay proved to be highly specific and had an in vitro sensitivity of 100 gene copies per reaction (∼15 bacteria). It showed a similar (in laryngeal/tracheal specimens) or even higher (in rectal/stoma swabs) in vivo sensitivity in comparison to routine microbial culture and was much quicker (<24 h vs. 2 days). By combining different oligonucleotide primers, there was robust detection of genetic variants of S. marcescens strains. PCR inhibition was low (1.6%) and observed with rectal swabs only. Cohort analysis illustrated applicability of the PCR assay as a quick tool to prevent outbreak scenarios by allowing rapid decisions on cohorting and barrier nursing. In summary, this novel molecular screening for colonization by S. marcescens is specific, highly sensitive, and substantially accelerates detection.View less
Myeloid cells are suggested as an important player in Alzheimer ' s disease (AD). However, its continuum of phenotypic and functional changes across different body compartments and their use as a biomarker in AD remains elusive. Here, we perform multiple state-of-the-art analyses to phenotypically and metabolically characterize immune cells between peripheral blood (n = 117), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, n = 117), choroid plexus (CP, n = 13) and brain parenchyma (n = 13). We find that CSF cells increase expression of markers involved in inflammation, phagocytosis, and metabolism. Changes in phenotype of myeloid cells from AD patients are more pronounced in CP and brain parenchyma and upon in vitro stimulation, suggesting that AD-myeloid cells are more vulnerable to environmental changes. Our findings underscore the importance of myeloid cells in AD and the detailed characterization across body compartments may serve as a resource for future studies focusing on the assessment of these cells as biomarkers in AD. Multiple state-of-the-art analyses of immune cells in 117 blood, 117 cerebrospinal fluid, 13 choroid plexus and 13 brain parenchyma samples reveal differential characteristics of immune cells in different body compartments and different diseases.View less
Despite advances in multi-modal treatment approaches, clinical outcomes of patients suffering from PAX3-FOXO1 fusion oncogene-expressing alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) remain dismal. Here we show that PAX3-FOXO1expressing ARMS cells are sensitive to pharmacological ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related protein (ATR) inhibition. Expression of PAX3-FOXO1 in muscle progenitor cells is not only sufficient to increase sensitivity to ATR inhibition, but PAX3-FOXO1-expressing rhabdomyosarcoma cells also exhibit increased sensitivity to structurally diverse inhibitors of ATR. Mechanistically, ATR inhibition leads to replication stress exacerbation, decreased BRCA1 phosphorylation and reduced homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair pathway activity. Consequently, ATR inhibitor treatment increases sensitivity of ARMS cells to PARP1 inhibition in vitro, and combined treatment with ATR and PARP1 inhibitors induces complete regression of primary patient-derived ARMS xenografts in vivo. Lastly, a genome-wide CRISPR activation screen (CRISPRa) in combination with transcriptional analyses of ATR inhibitor resistant ARMS cells identifies the RAS-MAPK pathway and its targets, the FOS gene family, as inducers of resistance to ATR inhibition. Our findings provide a rationale for upcoming biomarker-driven clinical trials of ATR inhibitors in patients suffering from ARMS.View less
Primary lymphomas of the central nervous system (PCNSL) are mainly diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) confined to the central nervous system (CNS). Molecular drivers of PCNSL have not been fully elucidated. Here, we profile and compare the whole-genome and transcriptome landscape of 51 CNS lymphomas (CNSL) to 39 follicular lymphoma and 36 DLBCL cases outside the CNS. We find recurrent mutations in JAK-STAT, NFkB, and B-cell receptor signaling pathways, including hallmark mutations in MYD88 L265P (67%) and CD79B (63%), and CDKN2A deletions (83%). PCNSLs exhibit significantly more focal deletions of HLA-D (6p21) locus as a potential mechanism of immune evasion. Mutational signatures correlating with DNA replication and mitosis are significantly enriched in PCNSL. TERT gene expression is significantly higher in PCNSL compared to activated B-cell (ABC)-DLBCL. Transcriptome analysis clearly distinguishes PCNSL and systemic DLBCL into distinct molecular subtypes. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+ CNSL cases lack recurrent mutational hotspots apart from IG and HLA-DRB loci. We show that PCNSL can be clearly distinguished from DLBCL, having distinct expression profiles, IG expression and translocation patterns, as well as specific combinations of genetic alterations.View less
Helicobacter pylori causes gastric inflammation, gland hyperplasia and is linked to gastric cancer. Here, we studied the interplay between gastric epithelial stem cells and their stromal niche under homeostasis and upon H. pylori infection. We find that gastric epithelial stem cell differentiation is orchestrated by subsets of stromal cells that either produce BMP inhibitors in the gland base, or BMP ligands at the surface. Exposure to BMP ligands promotes a feed-forward loop by inducing Bmp2 expression in the epithelial cells themselves, enforcing rapid lineage commitment to terminally differentiated mucous pit cells. H. pylori leads to a loss of stromal and epithelial Bmp2 expression and increases expression of BMP inhibitors, promoting self-renewal of stem cells and accumulation of gland base cells, which we mechanistically link to IFN-gamma signaling. Mice that lack IFN-gamma signaling show no alterations of BMP gradient upon infection, while exposure to IFN-gamma resembles H. pylori-driven mucosal responses.View less
The immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) lenalidomide and pomalidomide are highly effective treatments for multiple myeloma. However, virtually all patients eventually relapse due to acquired drug resistance with resistance-causing genetic alterations being found only in a small subset of cases. To identify non-genetic mechanisms of drug resistance, we here perform integrated global quantitative tandem mass tag (TMT)-based proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses and RNA sequencing in five paired pre-treatment and relapse samples from multiple myeloma patients. These analyses reveal a CDK6-governed protein resistance signature that includes myeloma high-risk factors such as TRIP13 and RRM1. Overexpression of CDK6 in multiple myeloma cell lines reduces sensitivity to IMiDs while CDK6 inhibition by palbociclib or CDK6 degradation by proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) is highly synergistic with IMiDs in vitro and in vivo. This work identifies CDK6 upregulation as a druggable target in IMiD-resistant multiple myeloma and highlights the use of proteomic studies to uncover non-genetic resistance mechanisms in cancer.View less