The size and architecture of the root system is functionally relevant for the access to water and soil nutrients. A great number of mostly unknown genes are involved in regulating root architecture complicating targeted breeding of plants with a larger root system. Here, we have explored whether root-specific degradation of the hormone cytokinin, which is a negative regulator of root growth, can be used to genetically engineer maize (Zea mays L.) plants with a larger root system. Root-specific expression of a CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE (CKX) gene of Arabidopsis caused the formation of up to 46% more root dry weight while shoot growth of these transgenic lines was similar as in non-transgenic control plants. The concentration of several elements, in particular of those with low soil mobility (K, P, Mo, Zn), was increased in leaves of transgenic lines. In kernels, the changes in concentration of most elements were less pronounced, but the concentrations of Cu, Mn and Zn were significantly increased in at least one of the three independent lines. Our data illustrate the potential of an increased root system as part of efforts towards achieving biofortification. Taken together, this work has shown that root-specific expression of a CKX gene can be used to engineer the root system of maize and alter shoot element composition.