Campylobacter jejuni infections are progressively increasing worldwide. Probiotic treatment might open novel therapeutic or even prophylactic approaches to combat campylobacteriosis. In the present study secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and perorally reassociated with a commensal murine Lactobacillus johnsonii strain either 14 days before (i.e. prophylactic regimen) or 7 days after (i.e. therapeutic regimen) peroral C. jejuni strain 81–176 infection. Following peroral reassociation both C. jejuni and L. johnsonii were able to stably colonize the murine intestinal tract. Neither therapeutic nor prophylactic L. johnsonii application, however, could decrease intestinal C. jejuni burdens. Notably, C. jejuni induced colonic apoptosis could be ameliorated by prophylactic L. johnsonii treatment, whereas co-administration of L. johnsonii impacted adaptive (i.e. T and B lymphocytes, regulatory T cells), but not innate (i.e. macrophages and monocytes) immune cell responses in the intestinal tract. Strikingly, C. jejuni induced intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators (such as IL-6, MCP-1, TNF and nitric oxide) could be alleviated by peroral L. johnsonii challenge. In conclusion, immunomodulatory probiotic species might offer valuable strategies for prophylaxis and/or treatment of C. jejuni induced intestinal, extra- intestinal as well as systemic pro-inflammatory immune responses in vivo.