This paper discusses the contribution of research-based evidence to effective policy and decision-making for sustainable development. It underlines to the importance of interactive relationships between decisionmakers, researchers and other stakeholders in the policy process. The paper is based on the case- study of the research project entitled, “Adapting to Climate Change through Integrated Water and Nutrient Management for Increased Crop Yields,” being implemented in Uganda by Sustainable Livelihoods International (SLINT)–Uganda in partnership with Makerere University and National Agriculture Research Organisation (NARO). In Uganda, agricultural productivity is constrained, among other factors, by climatic changes. In turn this is significantly impacting on food security and sustainable development efforts. In recent years, a number of organizations and government institutions, including SLINT- Uganda and Makerere University, have initiated programmes to help farmers increase their capacities to cope with the impacts of climate change and to significantly reduce their vulnerabilities through informed climate change mitigation and adaptation policies and measures. In the project, participatory research approaches including Farmer Field Schools (FFS), on-farm demonstrations, farmer field days, focus group discussions and social dimensions documentation aligned to the interactive model and enlightenment model have been used to produce empirical data to facilitate evidence-based policy and decision-making on climate change adaptation. One of the key lessons learned so far is that participatory documentation of on-the-ground conditions and farmers’ experiences provides a framework for effective policy development. The involvement of key stakeholders to analyse climate change challenges and practices that have a dramatic impact on their lives and sustainable development contributes to policy design and development. It is thus a foundation for evidence-based decision-making and policy-making because it fosters strong relationships with stakeholders throughout the entire process, including development of recommendations for policy and practice from the research results. When people are well-informed, they become active agents and advocates of change. Collecting of research evidence also requires diligent application of a wide array of tools, techniques and strategies. This would set a proper context for subsequent policy development. This case study offers a number of important lessons that can be replicated in other areas.