Research in the field of Global Environmental Governance (GEG) pays considerable attention to the emergence of New Governance Mechanisms (NGM). This doesn't only mean the involvement of a growing number of non-state actors but also of new state actors, corresponding to new ways of participation. In this regard, NGM poses profound challenges to governments and institutions in the Developed and Developing world alike. This article seeks to advance the debates on GEG by analysing fairness and equity implications in participatory processes that led to the development of innovative governance mechanisms in Brazil, which may have influenced the elaboration of its intended Nationally Determined Contribution (iNDC). Given the fact that the social dimension is at the heart of Brazil’s climate adaptation and mitigation strategies and bearing in mind the need to institutionalize the protection of vulnerable from the negative effects of climate change and strength their resilience, a relevant aspect is evident. Brazil, as a transitional economy, could provide insights into environmental governance schemes as well as influence the policy-making process in others developing nations. We believe that existing local, regional and global governance mechanisms in Brazil, explore keyfactors associated with public perception, awareness, ethics, justice, innovation and risk management, which are ultimately important to address normative implications related to the climate negotiations and international relations as Brazil’s iNDC commits to strength the country’s adaptation capacity and proactively assess climate related risks. But how fairness and equity are really addressed in the country?