Costa Rica announced its carbon neutrality by 2021; however, the real challenge is in the implementation by means of a national sustainable energy strategy. The possibilities to reach 100 percent of electricity generation expanding hydropower appears as the “dominant” solution, however this approach entails environmental problems and social conflicts that compromise sustainability in the long term. Alternatively, the strategy consisting in a higher diversification of renewable energy sources, i.e. with a relevant role of solar energy, remains relegated. Even though, some alternative technologies have been introduced in Costa Rica forty years ago, they still play a marginal role in the national strategy for climate change. Within the country energy mix, hydropower is widely used by public and private energy generators. This does not imply that all actors are expecting non-conventional technologies to become the sole or dominant provider of electricity. Nevertheless, sustainability and long term planning entail increasing the share of other renewable sources in future energy policies and strategies. In this sense, the following questions emerge: what kind of dilemmas stands before the national energy system today and how to create a path based upon alternative renewable sources in order to reach 100 percent renewable electricity generation, foreseeing carbon neutrality by 2021. There is a wide range of explanations in this respect that could be clustered in two groups: governance and people. First, a change in the energy route is a matter of governance with the number of challenges it entails. Second, energy developments are also a matter of strategic actions, from people or actors, oriented to strengthening the position of e.g. solar power into the national energy mix. To be able to answer these questions, a set of theories and approaches will be used from Agency, Governance and Path-dependence frameworks.