Femtosecond time-resolved two-photon photoemission spectroscopy is utilized to determine the electronically excited states dynamics at the α-sexithiophene (6T)/Au(111) interface and within the 6T film. We found that a photoinduced transition between the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital is essential in order to observe exciton population, which occurs within 100 fs. In thin 6T films, the exciton exhibits a lifetime of 650 fs. On a time scale of 400 fs, an energetic stabilization is observed leading to the formation of a polaron or electron trapping at defect states. The lifetime of this state is 6.3 ps. Coverage-dependent measurements show that apart from the excited state decay within the film, a substrate- mediated relaxation channel is operative. The present study demonstrates that two-photon photoemission spectroscopy is a powerful tool to investigate the whole life cycle from creation to decay of excitons in an organic semiconductor.