Nanotechnology has resulted in materials that have greatly improved the effectiveness of drug delivery because of their ability to control matter on the nanoscale. Advanced forms of nanomedicine have been synthesized for better pharmacokinetics to obtain higher efficacy, less systemic toxicity, and better targeting. These criteria have long been the goal in nanomedicine, in particular, for systemic applications in oncological disorders. Now, the “holy grail” in nanomedicine is to design and synthesize new advanced macromolecular nanocarriers and to translate them from lab to clinic. This review describes the current and future perspectives of nanomedicine with particular emphasis on the clinical targets in cancer and inflammation. The advanced forms of liposomes and polyethylene glycol (PEG) based nanocarriers, as well as dendritic polymer conjugates will be discussed with particular attention paid to designs, synthetic strategies, and chemical pathways. In this critical review, we also report on the current status and perspective of dendritic polymer nanoconjugate platforms (e.g. polyamidoamine dendrimers and dendritic polyglycerols) for cellular localization and targeting of specific tissues (192 references).