Die komplette Dissertation im pdf-Format (624.162 Bytes):
Despite an intensified government control of food production in the industrial
countries the incidence of food-relatet diseases is incraesing year after
year. In the majority of dignosable cases, food from canteen kitchens is
identified as causative agent. Food from Bundeswehr kitchens is also time and
again established as a cause of disease among mess food participants. The
percentage of cold meals as regards identified causes of diseases amounts to
approx. 50 percent.
The purpose of this paper was to effect a hygiene hazard analysis and to
determinate "critical control points" in the preparation of cold meals in
Bundeswehr food service facilities.
To this end, in-process controls of the preparation of cold meals were
conducted in three different Bundeswehr unit kitchens on 28 days over a period
of 2 years. The dishes examined comprised 6 sausage, 2 beef and 8 chicken
salads, 3 curd cheese desserts, 2 cremes and 7 boiled puddings. During the in-
process controls measurements of the ambient temperature and of the core
temperature of the food were conducted. Samples of 140 initial, intermediate
and final products were taken and mikrobiological tests were conducted to
identify the total number of aerobic bacteria as well as changes in the germ
spectrum (Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci, staphylococci, Bacillus cereus).
Apart from this, the mikrobiological status of appliances and utensils used
during the preparation of meals (n=87) was determined. Moreover, 41 samples
were taken from surfaces in order to verify cleaning and disinfection
measures. The microbiological examination of the food followed the test
procedures of the Official Compilation in accordance with § 35 LMBG (German
Food Act) (L 06.00.16, L 06.00-19, L 06.00-25, L 06.00-32). The
microbiological status of surfaces was identified by means of the
"Quantitative swab method" in accordance with DIN 10113-1. By summary
evaluation of the results the production process was recorded and hazards in
the production process were identified. Possibilities for installing "control
points" and "critical control points" in accordance with the HACCP concept for
risk minimizing were considered.
On the basis of results obtained, two "critical control points" could be
established: The storage of the primary products and the cooling down of heat-
treated food prior to its further processing. At these points, the elemination
of potential hazards can be accomplished by time/temperature controls.
Throughout all other phases of the preparation process several complementary
hygiene control measures need to be combined in order to eliminate
microbiological hazards, this rendering the term "critical control points"
inapplicable. An effective process control is, however, ensured by adherence
to the following hygiene control points:
1. On-receipt inspection of foods,
2. Exclusive use of pre-cooled products,
3. Preparation of cold meals and other meals at different places or at different times,
4. Processing without delay and preparation shortly before food dispensing,
5. Avoiding manual contact by use of disposable gloves or kitchen tools; unavoidable manual contact only after thorough hand cleaning and disinfection,
6. Provision of microbiologically clean surfaces of appliances and utensils disinfection in accordance with detailed hygiene plans.
Wiping and desinfecting by means of a cloth produced irregular and often
insuffcient results in the kitchens. Moreover, even after thorough cleaning,
both manually and in a dishwasher, Makrolon tops still exhibited high numbers
of germs and hygiene indicator germs. Only disinfection led to a
mikrobiologically satisfying condition. As a consequence, the hygiene plans to
be developed should - in deviation from established Bundeswehr hygiene
regulations - provide for a daily disinfection of such tops and shelves.
Current regulations call for disinfections on a weekly basis only.
Micobiological examinations of the surfaces are essential to verify
successfully performed cleaning and disinfection measures. Visual inspections
alone are not sufficient.
In order to determine the germ content of surfaces the wet/dry swab method as
per DIN 10113-1 was validatet for a certain type of swab in preliminary tests
and in field trials compared as a reference method with the simple swab
procedure and various commercial agar contact systems with regard to
applicability and validity (n=242). The reference method produced the highest
retrieval rate in comparing tested procedures. Yet, because of complicated
sampling and elaborate processing it seems to be only conditionally suitable
for routine examinations. The simple swab method, which allowed for easier
sampling, yielded a germ result wich was 0,5 log10 steps lower and had a good
correlation with the reference method (r=0,82). In addition, the combination
of this simple swab procedure with the Millipore sampler makes the treatment
of samples less complicated. The germ numbers determined by means of agar
contact systems were on average one log10 step lower than the values
determined by the reference method
600 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften::630 Landwirtschaft::630 Landwirtschaft und verwandte Bereiche
Hygienische Gefahrenanalyse und Kontrollpunkte bei der Verarbeitung von
Lebensmitteln tierischer Herkunft für die Kalte Küche in Großküchen der
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Gerhard Reuter
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Goetz Hildebrandt
Zur Umsetzung von Informations- und Partizipationsrechten in der Kinder- und
Hygienic hazard analysis and control points in the preparing of food from
animal origin for cold meals in Bundeswehr food service facilities
The realization of information and participation rights in child and