Background: Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) have been defined to promote the workplace participation of undergraduate medical students, generally in the context of high-income countries with a focus on the secondary and tertiary health care sectors. These EPAs have limited applicability to training and health care contexts in low- to middle-income countries that have a focus on primary health care, for instance, the context of community medicine. The purpose of this article is to report the process and results of defining EPAs for undergraduate medical training in a community health care setting.
Methods: A modified Delphi study was performed to develop EPAs for the training of medical students in community medicine during their first and second years of education at the Marilia Medical School (FAMEMA), Brazil. The supervision level was operationalized in terms of a student's ability to perform the EPA autonomously in an effective and safe manner with supervision readily available on request. Panellists (9 physicians and 6 nurses) rated the completeness of the proposed list of EPAs and EPA categories on four-point Likert scales. The threshold for consensus among panellists was a mean content validity index of at least 80%.
Results: Consensus was reached after two Delphi rounds, resulting in 11 EPAs for undergraduate medical education and training in community medicine. These EPAs were organized into three overarching EPA domains: integrality of care for individual health needs in all phases of the life cycle (5 EPAs), integrality of care for family health needs (3 EPAs), and integrality of care for community health needs (3 EPAs). For each EPA, descriptions of the following categories were created: title; specifications and limitations; conditions and implications of the entrustment decision; knowledge, skills, and attitudes; links to competencies; and assessment sources.
Conclusion: The resulting 11 EPAs for training medical students in community medicine expand the application of the EPA framework to both early undergraduate medical education and the context of primary health care. This report can support and guide other medical schools in their attempts to train students in primary health care contexts and to incorporate EPAs into their curricula.