Plastics have become an integral component in agricultural production as mulch films, nets, storage bins and in many other applications, but their widespread use has led to the accumulation of large quantities in soils. Rational use and reduction, collection, reuse, and innovative recycling are key measures to curb plastic pollution from agriculture. Plastics that cannot be collected after use must be biodegradable in an environmentally benign manner. Harmful plastic additives must be replaced with safer alternatives to reduce toxicity burdens and included in the ongoing negotiations surrounding the United Nations Plastics Treaty. Although full substitution of plastics is currently not possible without increasing the overall environmental footprint and jeopardizing food security, alternatives with smaller environmental impacts should be used and endorsed within a clear socio-economic framework. Better monitoring and reporting, technical innovation, education and training, and social and economic incentives are imperative to promote more sustainable use of plastics in agriculture.