Background: The antiseptic agent octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) is used for skin preparation, for Staphylococcus aureus decolonization, and within bundles for the prevention of catheter-related or surgical site infections (SSIs). Here, we review the evidence for the effects of OCT from clinical studies. Methods: Review of studies published in the Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases until August 2022, performed in clinical settings and reporting on effects of OCT on S. aureus carriage/transmission, SSI prevention, and prevention of intensive care unit (ICU)-related or catheter-related bloodstream and insertion site infections. Results: We included 31 articles. The success of S. aureus decolonization with OCT-containing therapies ranged between 6 and 87%. Single studies demonstrated that OCT application led to a reduction in S. aureus infections, acquisition, and carriage. No study compared OCT for skin preparation before surgical interventions to other antiseptics. Weak evidence for the use of OCT for pre-operative washing was found in orthopedic and cardiac surgery, if combined with other topical measures. Mostly, studies did not demonstrate that daily OCT bathing reduced ICU-/catheter-related bloodstream infections with one exception. Conclusions: There is a need to perform studies assessing the clinical use of OCT compared with other antiseptics with respect to its effectiveness to prevent nosocomial infections.