Theileria annulata is a tick‐borne protozoan causing tropical theileriosis in cattle. The use of attenuated cell line vaccines in combination with subunit vaccines has been relatively successful as a control method, as exemplified by a recent study in which immunization with a local cell line followed by booster vaccinations with recombinant T. annulata surface protein (TaSP) resulted in 100% protection upon field challenge in Sudan. However, these findings cannot be directly extrapolated to other countries as culture‐attenuated live vaccines are generated using local strains and no systematic evaluation of genotype differences between countries has been undertaken. In this study, we sequenced the TaSP gene from T. annulata cell lines and field isolates from Tunisia (n = 28) and compared them to genotypes from Sudan (n = 25) and Morocco (n = 1; AJ316259.1). Our analyses revealed 20 unique TaSP genotypes in the Tunisian samples, which were all novel but similar to genotypes found in Asia. The impact of these polymorphisms on the ability of the TaSP antigen to boost the immunity engendered by live cell line vaccines, especially in Tunisia where studies with TaSP have not been conducted, remains to be examined. Interestingly, phylogenetic analyses of publicly available TaSP sequences resolved the sequences into two clusters with no correlation to the geographical origin of the isolates. The availability of candidate vaccines that were recently attenuated using local strains from Sudan, Tunisia, Egypt and Morocco should be exploited to generate a comprehensive catalogue of genetic variation across this regional collection of attenuated live vaccines.