Background: Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has emerged as a minimally invasive treatment modality for ablation of low-grade glioma (LGG) and radiation necrosis (RN).
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and survival outcomes of patients with radiographically presumed recurrent or newly diagnosed LGG and RN treated with LITT.
Methods: The neuro-oncological database of a quaternary center was reviewed for all patients who underwent LITT for management of LGG between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2020. Clinical data including demographics, lesion characteristics, and clinical and radiographic outcomes were collected. Kaplan-Meier analyses comprised overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).
Results: Nine patients (7 men, 2 women; mean [SD] age 50  years) were included. Patients underwent LITT at a mean (SD) of 11.6 (8.5) years after diagnosis. Two (22%) patients had new lesions on radiographic imaging without prior treatment. In the other 7 patients, all (78%) had surgical resection, 6 (67%) had intensity-modulated radiation therapy and chemotherapy, respectively, and 4 (44%) had stereotactic radiosurgery. Two (22%) patients had lesions that were wild-type IDH1 status. Volumetric assessment of preoperative T1-weighted contrast-enhancing and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences yielded mean (SD) lesion volumes of 4.1 (6.5) cm(3) and 26.7 (27.9) cm(3), respectively. Three (33%) patients had evidence of radiographic progression after LITT. The pooled median (IQR) PFS for the cohort was 52 (56) months, median (IQR) OS after diagnosis was 183 (72) months, and median (IQR) OS after LITT was 52 (60) months. At the time of the study, 2 (22%) patients were deceased.
Conclusions: LITT is a safe and effective treatment option for management of LGG and RN, however, there may be increased risk of permanent complications with treatment of deep-seated subcortical lesions.