Dietary supplementation with arginine (Arg) or glutamine (Gln) has been considered as an option to improve nursing performance in reproductive sows. This study investigated whether a low-level supplementation of Arg or Gln or a blend of both could modify milk nutrients and improve piglets’ growth beyond weaning. Seventy-two multiparous sows were assigned to four groups: one group fed a control diet, three treatment groups fed the control diet supplemented with either 0.35% Arg, 0.35% Gln, or both, from day 108 of gestation until weaning at day 26 of lactation. Immediately after birth, the litters were cross fostered to 13 piglets and monitored until 2 wk after weaning. Sows body condition and litter growth were assessed. Colostrum and milk samples were collected for nutrient analyses. Plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) around weaning were determined in sows and two representative piglets per litter. Supplementing Gln or the combination of Arg and Gln had no effect on the parameters studied. Arg supplementation increased weaning weight, while decreasing the variation of piglet weights 2 wk after weaning. There was no correlation with plasma IGF-1 since the hormone was not altered in sows or piglets. The colostral concentration of fat tended to increase in the Arg-group, whereas protein, lactose, energy, and polyamine concentrations remained unaffected. Milk samples obtained on day 12 and 25 of lactation were not influenced by dietary treatment. The data indicate that there might be a window of opportunity, explicitly at the onset of lactation, for dietary intervention by maternal dietary Arg supplementation.