Neuroinflammation is one of the common features in most neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis (MScl) and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is associated with local brain inflammation, microglial activation, and infiltration of peripheral immune cells into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the central nervous system (CNS). It has been shown that the diversity of phenotypic changes in monocytes in CSF relates to neuroinflammation. It remains to be investigated whether these phenotypic changes are associated with functional or metabolic alteration, which may give a hint to their function or changes in cell states, e.g., cell activation. In this article, we investigate whether major metabolic pathways of blood monocytes alter after exposure to CSF of healthy individuals or patients with AD or MScl. Our findings show a significant alteration of the metabolism of monocytes treated with CSF from patients and healthy donors, including higher production of citric acid and glutamine, suggesting a more active glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and reduced production of glycine and serine. These alterations suggest metabolic reprogramming of monocytes, possibly related to the change of compartment (from blood to CSF) and/or disease-related. Moreover, the levels of serine differ between AD and MScl, suggesting different phenotypic alterations between diseases.