An increased omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) tissue status can lead to a significant formation of anti-inflammatory lipid mediators and effective reduction in inflammation and tissue injury in murine colitis. Arachidonic acid lipoxygenases (ALOX) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease as well as in the formation of pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. To explore the role of Alox15 in the protective response found in fat1 transgenic mice with endogenously increased n-3 PUFA tissue status fat1 transgenic mice were crossed with Alox15-deficient animals and challenged in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)- and the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model. Transgenic fat1 mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs were protected from colitis. However, additional systemic inactivation of the Alox15 gene counteracted this protective effect. To explore the molecular basis for this effect Alox15 lipid metabolites derived from n-3 PUFA were analyzed in the different mice. Alox15 deficiency suppressed the formation of n-3 PUFA-derived 15-hydroxy eicosapentaenoic acid (15-HEPE). In contrast, treating mice with intraperitoneal injections of 15S-HEPE protected wild-type mice from DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis. These data suggest that the anti-colitis effect of increased n-3 PUFA in the transgenic fat1 mouse model is mediated in part via Alox15-derived 15-HEPE formation.