Immune-mediated chronic inflammatory diseases have emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries over the last decades. Although multiple putative factors have been suspected to be causally related to the diseases, their overarching etiology remains unknown. This review article summarizes the current state of scientific knowledge and understanding of the role of non-receptor tyrosine kinases, with a special focus on the Janus kinase TYK2 in autoimmune and immune mediated diseases as well as on the clinical properties of its inhibition. A panel of experts in the field discussed the scientific evidence and molecular rationale for TYK2 inhibition and its clinical application. Reviewing this meeting, we aim at providing an integrated overview of the clinical profile of TYK2 inhibition and its potential in targeted pharmacological therapy of chronic autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases, with a special focus on inflammatory diseases of the skin.