Mortality, impaired development and metabolic dysfunctions of suckling low-birthweight piglets may be influenced by modulating the intestinal microbiome through glutamine supplementation. Therefore, this study examined whether glutamine supplementation may affect the colonic development and microbiome composition of male low- and normal-birthweight piglets at 5 and 12 days of age. Suckling piglets were supplemented orally with glutamine or alanine. Colonic digesta samples were obtained for 16S rDNA sequencing, determination of bacterial metabolites and histomorphological tissue analyses. Glutamine-supplemented piglets had lower concentrations of cadaverine and spermidine in the colonic digesta (p < 0.05) and a higher number of CD3+ colonic intraepithelial lymphocytes compared to alanine-supplemented piglets (p < 0.05). Low-birthweight piglets were characterised by a lower relative abundance of Firmicutes, the genera Negativibacillus and Faecalibacterium and a higher abundance of Alistipes (p < 0.05). Concentrations of cadaverine and total biogenic amines (p < 0.05) and CD3+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (p < 0.05) were lower in low- compared with normal-birthweight piglets. In comparison to the factor age, glutamine supplementation and birthweight were associated with minor changes in microbial and histological characteristics of the colon, indicating that ontogenetic factors play a more important role in intestinal development.