To minimize the use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, the 2018 amendment to the regulations of veterinary pharmacies (TÄHAV) introduced legal restrictions in Germany. In an online survey among German veterinarians, we investigated the influence of these requirements on the use of antibiotics in the treatment of dogs and cats and the development of resistance rates. It was found that, on average, between 21% and 30% of daily treated dogs and cats received antimicrobial therapy. The TÄHAV amendment led to a less frequent use of highest priority critically important antimicrobials (HPCIA) in 79% (240/303) of respondents and less antimicrobial use in general in 36% (108/303). As a result of these legal changes, 63% (190/303) of participants requested antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) more frequently. Participants consulted ASTs particularly frequently for treatment of otitis externa with 63% (190/303), cystitis with 55% (168/303), wounds with 44% (132/303), and pyoderma with 29% (88/303). Veterinarians also noted an increased loss of antimicrobial efficacy, especially when treating these diseases. The results of our survey confirm that the TÄHAV amendment is having a positive impact on prudent antibiotic use, with participants performing more ASTs, using HPCIA less frequently, and choosing alternative antimicrobials for therapy.