Bioelectronics are powerful tools for monitoring and stimulating biological and biochemical processes, with applications ranging from neural interface simulation to biosensing. The increasing demand for bioelectronics has greatly promoted the development of new nanomaterials as detection platforms. Recently, owing to their ultrathin structures and excellent physicochemical properties, emerging two-dimensional (2D) materials have become one of the most researched areas in the fields of bioelectronics and biosensors. In this timely review, the physicochemical structures of the most representative emerging 2D materials and the design of their nanostructures for engineering high-performance bioelectronic and biosensing devices are presented. We focus on the structural optimization of emerging 2D material-based composites to achieve better regulation for enhancing the performance of bioelectronics. Subsequently, the recent developments of emerging 2D materials in bioelectronics, such as neural interface simulation, biomolecular/biomarker detection, and skin sensors are discussed thoroughly. Finally, we provide conclusive views on the current challenges and future perspectives on utilizing emerging 2D materials and their composites for bioelectronics and biosensors. This review will offer important guidance in designing and applying emerging 2D materials in bioelectronics, thus further promoting their prospects in a wide biomedical field.