Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to be responsible for tumor initiation, invasion, metastasis, and recurrence, which lead to treatment failure. Thus, developing effective CSC-targeted therapeutic strategies is crucial for enhancing therapeutic efficacy. In this work, GNSs-dPG-3BP, TPP, and HA nanocomposite particles are developed by simultaneously conjugating hexokinase 2 (HK2) inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), mitochondrial targeting molecule triphenyl phosphonium (TPP), and CSCs targeting agent hyaluronic acid (HA) onto gold nanostars-dendritic polyglycerol (GNSs-dPG) nanoplatforms for efficient eradication of CSCs. The nanocomposite particles possess good biocompatibility and exhibit superior mitochondrial-bound HK2 binding ability via 3BP to inhibit metabolism, and further induce cellular apoptosis by releasing the cytochrome c. Therefore, it enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of CSCs-specific targeted photothermal therapy (PTT), and achieved a synergistic effect for the eradication of breast CSCs. After administration of the synergistic treatment, the self-renewal of breast CSCs and the stemness gene expression are suppressed, CSC-driven mammosphere formation is diminished, the in vivo tumor growth is effectively inhibited, and CSCs are eradicated. Altogether, GNSs-dPG-3BP, TPP, and HA nanocomposite particles have been developed, which will provide a novel strategy for precise and highly efficient targeted eradication of CSCs.