Background: The allergy preventive effects of gut immune modulation by bacterial compounds are still not fully understood.
Objective: We sought to evaluate the effect of bacterial lysate applied orally from the second until seventh months of life on the prevalence of allergic diseases at school age.
Methods: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 606 newborns with at least one allergic parent received orally a bacterial lysate consisting of heat-killed Gram-negative Escherichia coli Symbio and Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis Symbio or placebo from week 5 until the end of month 7. A total of 402 children were followed until school age (6-11 years) for the assessment of current atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma and sensitization against aeroallergens.
Results: AD was diagnosed in 11.0% (22/200) of children in the active and in 10.4% (21/202) of children in the placebo group. AR was diagnosed in 35% (70/200) of children in the active and in 38.1% (77/202) children in the placebo group. Asthma was diagnosed in 9% (18/199) of children in the active and in 6.6% (13/197) of children in the placebo group. Sensitization occurred in 46.5% (66/142) of participants in the active and 51.7% (76/147) in the placebo group.
Conclusion: An oral bacterial lysate of heat-killed Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis applied during the first 7 months of life did not influence the development of AD, asthma and AR at school age.