As COVID-19 remains an issue in transplantation medicine, a successful vaccination can prevent infections and life-threatening courses. The probability of poor immune response in liver transplant recipients gained attention and insecurity among those patients, leading us to investigate the humoral immune response alongside the influence of underlying diseases and immunosuppressive regimen on seroconversion rates. We included 118 patients undergoing anti-spike-protein-IgG testing at least 21 days after completed SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Ninety-seven patients also underwent anti-spike-protein-IgA testing. The influence of baseline demographics, immunosuppressive regimen and underlying disease on seroconversion was analyzed, and 92 of 118 patients (78.0%) developed anti-spike-protein-IgG antibodies. Patients with a history of alcoholic liver disease before transplantation showed significantly lower seroconversion rates (p = 0.006). Immunosuppression also significantly influenced antibody development (p < 0.001). Patients run on a mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)-based regimen were more likely not to develop antibodies compared to patients run on a non-MMF regimen (p < 0.001). All patients weaned off immunosuppression were seropositive. The seroconversion rate of 78.0% in our cohort of liver transplant recipients is promising. The identification of alcohol-induced cirrhosis as underlying disease and MMF for immunosuppression as risk factors for seronegativity may serve to identify vaccination non-responder after liver transplantation.