Precision dosing of piperacillin/tazobactam in obese patients is compromised by sparse information on target-site exposure. We aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of current and alternative piperacillin/tazobactam dosages in obese and nonobese patients. Based on a prospective, controlled clinical trial in 30 surgery patients (15 obese/15 nonobese; 0.5-h infusion of 4 g/0.5 g piperacillin/tazobactam), piperacillin pharmacokinetics were characterized in plasma and at target-site (interstitial fluid of subcutaneous adipose tissue) via population analysis. Thereafter, multiple 3–4-times daily piperacillin/tazobactam short-term/prolonged (recommended by EUCAST) and continuous infusions were evaluated by simulation. Adequacy of therapy was assessed by probability of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target-attainment (PTA ≥ 90%) based on time unbound piperacillin concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) during 24 h (%fT>MIC). Lower piperacillin target-site maximum concentrations in obese versus nonobese patients were explained by the impact of lean (approximately two thirds) and fat body mass (approximately one third) on volume of distribution. Simulated steady-state concentrations were 1.43-times, 95%CI = (1.27; 1.61), higher in plasma versus target-site, supporting targets of %fT>2×MIC instead of %fT>4×MIC during continuous infusion to avoid target-site concentrations constantly below MIC. In all obesity and renally impairment/hyperfiltration stages, at MIC = 16 mg/L, adequate PTA required prolonged (thrice-daily 4 g/0.5 g over 3.0 h at %fT>MIC = 50) or continuous infusions (24 g/3 g over 24 h following loading dose at %fT>MIC = 98) of piperacillin/tazobactam.