Tephroseris is generally considered a difficult genus. Based on the examination of extensive herbarium material and considering the existing literature, we recognize seven species in Europe outside Russia. These are T. palustris, T. integrifolia with subsp. integrifolia, subsp. aurantiaca, subsp. capitata, subsp. maritima, subsp. serpentini and subsp. “tundricola”, T. balbisiana, T. crispa, T. helenitis, T. longifolia and T. papposa. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS and ETS sequences showed that these species fall into three lineages. These are: (1) T. palustris, clearly related to Arctic species of the genus; (2) T. integrifolia; and (3) the remaining species. Molecular dating of the T. integrifolia lineage resulted in a crown group age of 1.76 (0.85–2.87) million years. Possible reasons for taxonomic difficulties in the genus in Europe outside Russia may include its young phylogenetic age and extensive migration and genetic admixture in the Quaternary. The decline of the genus in Europe outside Russia is documented and discussed. We consider it possible that its decline is related to rising global temperatures.