Simple Summary: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) provides precise high-dose irradiation of intracranial tumors. However, its radiobiological mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aims to establish CyberKnife SRS on an intracranial glioblastoma tumor mouse model and assesses the early radiobiological effects of radiosurgery. Following exposure to a single dose of 20 Gy, the tumor volume was evaluated using MRI scans, whereas cellular proliferation and apoptosis, tumor vasculature, and immune response were evaluated using immunofluorescence staining. The mean tumor volume was significantly reduced by approximately 75% after SRS. The precision of irradiation was verified by the detection of DNA damage consistent with the planned dose distribution. Our study provides a suitable mouse model for reproducible and effective irradiation and further investigation of radiobiological effects and combination therapies of intracranial tumors using CyberKnife.
Abstract: CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery (CK-SRS) precisely delivers radiation to intracranial tumors. However, the underlying radiobiological mechanisms at high single doses are not yet fully understood. Here, we established and evaluated the early radiobiological effects of CK-SRS treatment at a single dose of 20 Gy after 15 days of tumor growth in a syngeneic glioblastoma-mouse model. Exact positioning was ensured using a custom-made, non-invasive, and trackable frame. One superimposed target volume for the CK-SRS planning was created from the fused tumor volumes obtained from MRIs prior to irradiation. Dose calculation and delivery were planned using a single-reference CT scan. Six days after irradiation, tumor volumes were measured using MRI scans, and radiobiological effects were assessed using immunofluorescence staining. We found that CK-SRS treatment reduced tumor volume by approximately 75%, impaired cell proliferation, diminished tumor vasculature, and increased immune response. The accuracy of the delivered dose was demonstrated by staining of DNA double-strand breaks in accordance with the planned dose distribution. Overall, we confirmed that our proposed setup enables the precise irradiation of intracranial tumors in mice using only one reference CT and superimposed MRI volumes. Thus, our proposed mouse model for reproducible CK-SRS can be used to investigate radiobiological effects and develop novel therapeutic approaches.