Background: Lung cancer has been the focus of attention for many researchers in recent years due to its leading contribution to cancer-related death worldwide, with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) being the most common histological type. Ferroptosis, a novel iron-dependent form of regulated cell death, can be induced by sorafenib. Emerging evidence shows that triggering ferroptosis has potential as a cancer therapy. This work aimed to build a ferroptosis-related gene signature for predicting the outcome of LUAD. Methods: The TCGA-LUAD dataset was set as the training cohort, and the GSE72094 and GSE68465 datasets were set as the validation cohorts. Sixty-two ferroptosis-related genes were retrieved from the literature. A univariate Cox regression model was constructed for the training cohort to preliminarily screen for potential prognostic ferroptosis-related genes. A gene signature was generated from a LASSO Cox regression model and assessed with the training and validation cohorts through Kaplan-Meier, Cox, and ROC analyses. In addition, the correlation between the risk score and autophagy-related genes was determined by the Pearson test. Finally, GSEA and immune infiltrating analyses were performed to better study the functional annotation of the signature and the role of each kind of immune cell. Results: A ten-gene signature was constructed from the training cohort and validated in three cohorts by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses, revealing its independent prognostic value in LUAD. Moreover, a ROC analysis conducted with all cohort data confirmed the predictive ability of the ten-gene signature for LUAD prognosis. A total of 62.85% (308/490) of autophagy-related genes were found to be significantly correlated with risk scores. GSEA detailed the exact pathways related to the gene signature, and immune-infiltrating analyses identified crucial roles for resting mast cells and resting dendritic cells in the prognosis of LUAD. Conclusions: We identified a novel ferroptosis-related ten-gene signature (PHKG2, PGD, PEBP1, NCOA4, GLS2, CISD1, ATP5G3, ALOX15, ALOX12B, and ACSL3) that can accurately predict LUAD prognosis and is closely linked to resting mast cells and resting dendritic cells.