Bacteria have been thought to flee senescence by dividing into two identical daughter cells, but this notion of immortality has changed over the last two decades. Asymmetry between the resulting daughter cells after binary fission is revealed in physiological function, cell growth, and survival probabilities and is expected from theoretical understanding. Since the discovery of senescence in morphologically identical but physiologically asymmetric dividing bacteria, the mechanisms of bacteria aging have been explored across levels of biological organization. Quantitative investigations are heavily biased toward Escherichia coli and on the role of inclusion bodies—clusters of misfolded proteins. Despite intensive efforts to date, it is not evident if and how inclusion bodies, a phenotype linked to the loss of proteostasis and one of the consequences of a chain of reactions triggered by reactive oxygen species, contribute to senescence in bacteria. Recent findings in bacteria question that inclusion bodies are only deleterious, illustrated by fitness advantages of cells holding inclusion bodies under varying environmental conditions. The contributions of other hallmarks of aging, identified for metazoans, remain elusive. For instance, genomic instability appears to be age independent, epigenetic alterations might be little age specific, and other hallmarks do not play a major role in bacteria systems. What is surprising is that, on the one hand, classical senescence patterns, such as an early exponential increase in mortality followed by late age mortality plateaus, are found, but, on the other hand, identifying mechanisms that link to these patterns is challenging. Senescence patterns are sensitive to environmental conditions and to genetic background, even within species, which suggests diverse evolutionary selective forces on senescence that go beyond generalized expectations of classical evolutionary theories of aging. Given the molecular tool kits available in bacteria, the high control of experimental conditions, the high-throughput data collection using microfluidic systems, and the ease of life cell imaging of fluorescently marked transcription, translation, and proteomic dynamics, in combination with the simple demographics of growth, division, and mortality of bacteria, make the challenges surprising. The diversity of mechanisms and patterns revealed and their environmental dependencies not only present challenges but also open exciting opportunities for the discovery and deeper understanding of aging and its mechanisms, maybe beyond bacteria and aging.