Machine learning can help us in solving problems in the context of big-data analysis and classification, as well as in playing complex games such as Go. But can it also be used to find novel protocols and algorithms for applications such as large-scale quantum communication? Here we show that machine learning can be used to identify central quantum protocols, including teleportation, entanglement purification, and the quantum repeater. These schemes are of importance in long-distance quantum communication, and their discovery has shaped the field of quantum information processing. However, the usefulness of learning agents goes beyond the mere reproduction of known protocols; the same approach allows one to find improved solutions to long-distance communication problems, in particular when dealing with asymmetric situations where the channel noise and segment distance are nonuniform. Our findings are based on the use of projective simulation, a model of a learning agent that combines reinforcement learning and decision making in a physically motivated framework. The learning agent is provided with a universal gate set, and the desired task is specified via a reward scheme. From a technical perspective, the learning agent has to deal with stochastic environments and reactions. We utilize an idea reminiscent of hierarchical skill acquisition, where solutions to subproblems are learned and reused in the overall scheme. This is of particular importance in the development of long-distance communication schemes, and opens the way to using machine learning in the design and implementation of quantum networks.