Until now, the reported diversity of representatives from the genus Hantzschia inhabiting soils from different parts of Eurasia was limited to the few species H. amphioxys, H. elongata and H. vivax and some of their infraspecific taxa. We have studied the morphology, ultrastructure and phylogeny of 25 soil diatom strains, which according to published description would be assigned to "H. amphioxys sensu lato" using 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and rbcL. We show that strains are made up of seven different species of Hantzschia, including five new for science. Five strains were identified as H. abundans. This species has a slight curvature of the raphe near its external proximal ends. Four of the examined strains were represented by different populations of H. amphioxys and their morphological characteristics fully correspond with its isolectotype and epitype. The main specific features of this species include 21-25 striae in 10 mu m, 6-11 fibulae in 10 mu m, 40-50 areolae in 10 mu m and internal proximal raphe endings bent in opposite directions. H. attractiva sp. nov., H. belgica sp. nov., H. parva sp. nov., H. pseudomongolica sp. nov. and H. stepposa sp. nov. were described based on differences in the shape of the valves, significant differences in dimensions, a lower number of striae and areolae in 10 mu m and the degree and direction of deflection of the internal central raphe endings. Based on the study of the morphological variability and phylogeny of soil Hantzschia-species from different geographical locations we conclude that while some species such as H. amphioxys are truly cosmopolitan in their distributions, some sympatric populations of pseudocryptic taxa exist in the Holarctic.