Fracture repair is initiated by a multitude of immune cells and induction of an inflammatory cascade. Alterations in the early healing response due to an aged adaptive immune system leads to impaired bone repair, delayed healing or even formation of non-union. However, immuno-senescence is not limited to the adaptive immunity, but is also described for macrophages, main effector cells from the innate immune system. Beside regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling, macrophages contribute to angiogenesis and granulation tissue maturation. Thus, it seems likely that an altered macrophage function due to aging may affect bone repair at various stages and contribute to age related deficiencies in bone regeneration. To prove this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression of macrophage markers and angiogenic factors in the early bone hematoma derived from young and aged osteotomized Spraque Dawley rats. We detected an overall reduced expression of the monocyte/pan-macrophage markers CD14 and CD68 in aged rats. Furthermore, the analysis revealed an impaired expression of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage markers in hematoma from aged animals that was connected to a diminished revascularization of the bone callus. To verify that the age related disturbed bone regeneration was due to a compromised macrophage function, CD14+ macrophage precursors were transplanted locally into the osteotomy gap of aged rats. Transplantation rescued bone regeneration partially after 6 weeks, demonstrated by a significantly induced deposition of new bone tissue, reduced fibrosis and significantly improved callus vascularization.Weniger anzeigen
Autonomous endogenous time-keeping is ubiquitous across many living organisms, known as the circadian clock when it has a period of about 24 h. Interestingly, the fundamental design principle with a network of interconnected negative and positive feedback loops is conserved through evolution, although the molecular components differ. Filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is a well-established chrono-genetics model organism to investigate the underlying mechanisms. The core negative feedback loop of the clock of Neurospora is composed of the transcription activator White Collar Complex (WCC) (heterodimer of WC1 and WC2) and the inhibitory element called FFC complex, which is made of FRQ (Frequency protein), FRH (Frequency interacting RNA Helicase) and CK1a (Casein kinase 1a). While exploring their temporal dynamics, we investigate how limit cycle oscillations arise and how molecular switches support self-sustained rhythms. We develop a mathematical model of 10 variables with 26 parameters to understand the interactions and feedback among WC1 and FFC elements in nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. We performed control and bifurcation analysis to show that our novel model produces robust oscillations with a wild-type period of 22.5 h. Our model reveals a switch between WC1-induced transcription and FFC-assisted inactivation of WC1. Using the new model, we also study the possible mechanisms of glucose compensation. A fairly simple model with just three nonlinearities helps to elucidate clock dynamics, revealing a mechanism of rhythms' production. The model can further be utilized to study entrainment and temperature compensation.Weniger anzeigen
The circadian clock is an endogenous oscillator that controls daily rhythms in metabolism, physiology, and behavior. Although the timekeeping components differ among species, a common design principle is a transcription-translation negative feedback loop. However, it is becoming clear that other mechanisms can contribute to the generation of 24 h rhythms. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) exhibit 24 h rhythms in their redox state in all kingdoms of life. In mammalian adrenal gland, heart and brown adipose tissue, such rhythms are generated as a result of an inactivating hyperoxidation reaction that is reduced by coordinated import of sulfiredoxin (Srx) into the mitochondria. However, a quantitative description of the Prx/Srx oscillating system is still missing. We investigate the basic principles that generate mitochondrial Prx/Srx rhythms using computational modeling. We observe that the previously described delay in mitochondrial Srx import, in combination with an appropriate separation of fast and slow reactions, is sufficient to generate robust self-sustained relaxation-like oscillations. We find that our conceptual model can be regarded as a series of three consecutive phases and two temporal switches, highlighting the importance of delayed negative feedback and switches in the generation of oscillations.Weniger anzeigen
Melanoma of the skin has become a prime example for demonstrating the success of targeted cancer therapy. Nevertheless, high mortality has remained, mainly related to tumor heterogeneity and inducible therapy resistance. But the development of new therapeutic strategies and combinations has raised hope of finally defeating this deadly disease. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) represents a promising antitumor strategy. The principal sensitivity of melanoma cells for TRAIL was demonstrated in previous studies; however, inducible resistance appeared as a major problem. To address this issue, combination strategies were tested, and survival pathway inhibitors were shown to sensitize melanoma cells for TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Finally, cell cycle inhibition was identified as a common principle of TRAIL sensitization in melanoma cells. Mitochondrial apoptosis pathways, pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins as well as the rheostat consisted of Smac (Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase) and XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) appeared to be of particular importance. Furthermore, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was recognized in this setting. Inducible TRAIL resistance in melanoma can be explained by (i) high levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, (ii) high levels of XIAP, and (iii) suppressed Bax activity. These hurdles have to be overcome to enable the use of TRAIL in melanoma therapy. Several strategies appear as particularly promising, including new TRAIL receptor agonists, Smac and BH3 mimetics, as well as selective kinase inhibitors.Weniger anzeigen
Angioplasty aiming at vascular dilatation causes endothelial denudation and induces complex inflammatory responses that affect vascular healing, including delayed reendothelialization and excessive neointima proliferation. Resveratrol is known for multiple beneficial effects on the vessel wall after systemic treatment or sustained release from a stent. It is also used as an additive on drug-coated balloon catheters (DCB). In this study, the effect of a single dose of resveratrol, three days to four weeks after administration as a balloon coating during angioplasty, was investigated. Sixteen pigs underwent angioplasty with resveratrol-coated or uncoated balloon catheters in coronary and peripheral arteries. Vessels were overstretched by approximately 20% to enhance vessel wall injury and to produce persistent vessel wall irritation. A significantly reduced number of micro vessels and macrophages in the adventitia, as well as an improved reendothelialization of the vessel lumen, were observed in resveratrol-treated peripheral arteries. The coronaries had a much higher injury score compared to peripheral vessels. Resveratrol-dependent reduction of macrophages, micro vessels or acceleration of reendothelialization was not evident in the coronary vessels. Additionally, no significant effect on neointima proliferation and inflammation score in either vessel territory was observed as a result of resveratrol treatment. In conclusion, the results suggest that resveratrol diminishes the inflammatory response and promotes vascular healing in peripheral arteries. These same effects are absent in more severely injured coronary arteries.Weniger anzeigen
In Germany, a decreasing number of general practitioners (GPs) face a growing number of patients with multimorbidity. Whilst care for patients with multimorbidity involves various healthcare providers, the coordination of this care is one of the many responsibilities of GPs. The aims of this study are to identify the barriers to the successful coordination of multimorbid patient care and these patients' complex needs, and to explore the support needed by GPs in the care of multimorbid patients. Interviewees were asked for their opinion on concepts which involve the support by additional employees within the practice or, alternatively, external health care professionals, providing patient navigation.
Thirty-two semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 GPs and 16 medical practice assistants (MPAs) from 16 different practices in Berlin. A MPA is a qualified non-physician practice employee. He or she undergoes a three years vocational training which qualifies him or her to provide administrative and clinical support. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using the framework analysis methodology.
The results of this paper predominantly focus on GPs' perspectives of coordination within and external to general practice. Coordination in the context of care for multimorbid patients consists of a wide range of different tasks. Organisational and administrative obstacles under the regulatory framework of the German healthcare system, and insufficient communication with other healthcare providers constitute barriers described by the interviewed GPs and MPAs. In order to ensure optimal care for patients with multimorbidity, GPs may have to delegate responsibilities associated with coordinating tasks. GPs consider the deployment of an additional specifically qualified employee inside the general practice to take on coordinative and social and legal duties to be a viable option.
The cross-sectoral cooperation between all involved key players working within the healthcare system, as well as the coordination of the whole care process, is seemingly challenging for GPs within the complex care system of multimorbid patients. GPs are generally open to the assignment of a person to support them in coordination tasks, preferably situated within the practice team.Weniger anzeigen
Contactless measurements during the night by a 3-D-camera are less time-consuming in comparison to polysomnography because they do not require sophisticated wiring. However, it is not clear what might be the diagnostic benefit and accuracy of this technology. We investigated 59 persons simultaneously by polysomnography and 3-D-camera and visual perceptive computing (19 patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS), 21 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and 19 healthy volunteers). There was a significant correlation between the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) measured by polysomnography and respiratory events measured with the 3-D-camera in OSA patients (r = 0.823; p < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve yielded a sensitivity of 90% for OSA with a specificity of 71.4%. In RLS patients 72.8% of leg movements confirmed by polysomnography could be detected by 3-D-video and a significant moderate correlation was found between PLM measured by polysomnography and by the 3-D-camera (RLS: r = 0.654; p = 0.004). In total, 95.4% of the sleep epochs were correctly classified by the machine learning approach, but only 32.5% of awake epochs. Further studies should investigate, if this technique might be an alternative to home sleep testing in persons with an increased pre-test probability for OSA.Weniger anzeigen
Budding is a complementary prognostic factor for colorectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of tumor budding in rectal cancer patients after preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
A total of 124 patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and consecutive surgery were included. Surgical specimens were evaluated for budding and routine clinicopathological features. Budding was evaluated on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained slides and by cytokeratin immunohistochemical (IHC) staining.
A budding rate of 36.9% (n = 38) by H&E and 55.6% (n = 55) by IHC was observed. Budding was significantly associated with a high ypT and ypN status, poor differentiation, and low degrees of tumor regression. Moreover, budding was strongly predictive of a worse patient outcome, as measured by tumor recurrence or death. In multivariate analyses, budding remained the only significant parameter for overall survival and was even superior to the ypT and ypN status (budding in H&E: hazard ratio (HR) 2.72, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.15-6.44, p = 0.023; budding in IHC: HR 5.19, 95% CI 1.62-16.61, p = 0.006).
Budding is a strong prognostic predictor of survival in rectal cancer patients after neoadjuvant therapy. A standardized evaluation of tumor budding after neoadjuvant therapy may thus aid in risk stratification and guide the clinical management of patients with rectal cancer. Immunostaining can help to enhance the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic significance.Weniger anzeigen
We aimed to assess surrogate markers for left ventricular (LV) myocardial power and efficiency in patients with isolated aortic stenosis (AS) and combined stenosis/regurgitation (AS/AR). In AS (n = 59), AS/AR (n = 21) and controls (n = 14), surrogates for LV myocardial power and circulatory/external myocardial efficiency were obtained from cardiac MRI. Median surrogate LV myocardial power was increased in AS, 7.7 W/m2 (interquartile range 6.0-10.2; p = 0.010) and AS/AR, 10.8 W/m2 (8.9-13.4; p < 0.001) when compared to controls, 5.4 W/m2 (4.2-6.5), and was lower in AS than AS/AR (p < 0.001). Surrogate circulatory efficiency was decreased in AS, 8.6% (6.8-11.1; p < 0.001) and AS/AR, 5.4% (4.1-6.2; p < 0.001) when compared to controls, 11.8% (9.8-16.9). Surrogate external myocardial efficiency was higher in AS, 15.2% (11.9-18.6) than in AS/AR, 12.2% (10.1-14.2; p = 0.031) and was significantly lower compared to controls, 12.2% (10.7-18.1) in patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF), 9.8% (8.1-11.7; p = 0.025). In 16% of all cases, left ventricular mass/volume indices and EF were within normal ranges, wheras surrogate LV myocardial power was elevated and patients were symptomatic. Although influenced by pressure/volume load, the myocardium is additionally affected by remodelling processes. Surrogates for circulatory efficiency and LV myocardial power gradually reflect alterations in patients with AS and AS/AR, even when surrogate external myocardial efficiency, EF, mass and volume indices still remain compensated.Weniger anzeigen
The discovery of extracellular RNA (exRNA) has shifted our understanding of the role of RNA in complex cellular functions such as cell-to-cell communication and a variety of pathologies. ExRNAs constitute a heterogenous group of RNAs ranging from small (such as microRNAs) and long non-coding to coding RNAs or ribosomal RNAs. ExRNAs can be liberated from cells in a free form or bound to proteins as well as in association with microvesicles (MVs), exosomes, or apoptotic bodies. Their composition and quantity depend heavily on the cellular or non-cellular component, the origin, and the RNA species being investigated; ribosomal RNA provides the majority of exRNA and miRNAs are predominantly associated with exosomes or MVs. Several studies showed that ribosomal exRNA (rexRNA) constitutes a proinflammatory and prothrombotic alarmin. It is released by various cell types upon inflammatory stimulation and by damaged cells undergoing necrosis or apoptosis and contributes to innate immunity responses. This exRNA has the potential to directly promote the release of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor factor-α (TNF-α) or interleukin-6 from immune cells, thereby leading to a proinflammatory environment and promoting cardiovascular pathologies. The potential role of exRNA in different pathologies of the central nervous system (CNS) has become of increasing interest in recent years. Although various exRNA species including both ribosomal exRNA as well as miRNAs have been associated with CNS pathologies, their precise roles remain to be further elucidated. In this review, the different entities of exRNA and their postulated roles in CNS pathologies including tumors, vascular pathologies and neuroinflammatory diseases will be discussed. Furthermore, the potential role of exRNAs as diagnostic markers for specific CNS diseases will be outlined, as well as possible treatment strategies addressing exRNA inhibition or interference.Weniger anzeigen
Background: Molecular targeting remains to be a promising approach in oncology. Overexpression of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in human cancer is offering a powerful opportunity for tumor-selective imaging and treatment employing nuclear medicine. We utilized novel chemerin-based peptide conjugates for chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) targeting in a breast cancer xenograft model. Methods: By conjugation with the chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), we obtained a family of five highly specific, high-affinity tracers for hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging. A xenograft model with target-positive DU4475 and negative A549 tumors in immunodeficient nude mice enabled CMKLR1-specific imaging in vivo. We acquired small animal PET/MR images, assessed biodistribution by ex vivo measurements and investigated the tracer specificity by blocking experiments. Results: Five CMKLR1-targeting peptide tracers demonstrated high biological activity and affinity in vitro with EC50 and IC50 values below 2 nM. Our target-positive (DU4475) and target-negative (A549) xenograft model could be validated by ex vivo analysis of CMKLR1 expression and binding. After preliminary PET imaging, the three most promising tracers [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-AHX-CG34, [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-KCap-CG34 and [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-ADX-CG34 with best tumor uptake were further analyzed. Hybrid PET/MR imaging along with concomitant biodistribution studies revealed distinct CMKLR1-specific uptake (5.1% IA/g, 3.3% IA/g and 6.2% IA/g 1 h post-injection) of our targeted tracers in DU4475 tumor tissue. In addition, tumor uptake was blocked by excess of unlabeled peptide (6.4-fold, 5.5-fold and 3.4-fold 1 h post-injection), further confirming CMKLR1 specificity. Out of five tracers, we identified these three tracers with moderate, balanced hydrophilicity to be the most potent in receptor-mediated tumor targeting. Conclusion: We demonstrated the applicability of 68Ga-labeled peptide tracers by visualizing CMKLR1-positive breast cancer xenografts in PET/MR imaging, paving the way for developing them into theranostics for tumor treatment.Weniger anzeigen
This chapter explores how transnational media and culture impacts on the identity formation of recent Latvian migrants in Germany. In the context of the EU, Germany opened its labour market to the new EU countries rather late, when compared to other ‘old’ EU countries. This has had an effect on the composition of the group of Latvian migrants going to Germany, and their identities. In the light of this, this chapter examines how Latvian migrants in Germany feel and experience their belonging to Latvia and its culture. It analyses the social and communicative practices crucial for the development of belonging, including the rootedness in the country where they live and the cultural references that are important for them. The evidence for the analysis in this chapter comes from in-depth interviews, open media diaries and network maps of Latvian migrants in Germany. The chapter situates the description of evidence in the framework of cultural identity concepts and discusses the role of culture and media in the process of building migrant identity. The chapter argues that culture is shaping the transnational self-perception of Latvian migrants in Germany – as it provides collective narratives of imagined common frames of references, and confirms feelings of belonging and distinction.Weniger anzeigen
We reviewed six key peer-reviewed publications that assessed the need for one-year studies of pesticide toxicity in dogs. Each of the six papers took a different approach to comparing the value of one-year studies relative to three-month studies, and despite the adoption of different databases and approaches, each study reached the same conclusion: the recommended limit to the testing of pesticide toxicity in dogs should be three months.
Therefore, the present review supports the conclusion that the routine inclusion of a one-year dog study should not be a mandatory requirement for the safety assessment of pesticides, since it is scientifically no longer justifiable. We recommend that the OECD should adapt a harmonized approach that is in line with the legislation in Europe and the USA.Weniger anzeigen
Depressive symptoms are often accompanied by cognitive impairments and recurrent depressive episodes are discussed as a potential risk for dementia. Especially, stressful life events are considered a potent risk factor for depression. Here, we induced recurrent stress-induced depressive episodes over the life span of rats, followed by cognitive assessment in the symptom-free period. Rats exposed to stress-induced depressive episodes learned faster than control rats. A high degree of stress-induced depressive-like behavior early in the paradigm was a predictor of improved cognitive performance, suggesting induction of resilience. Subsequently, exposure to lorazepam prior to stress-induced depressive episodes and cognitive testing in a nonaversive environment prevented the positive effect. This indicates a beneficial effect of the stress-associated situation, with the existence of individual coping abilities. Altogether, stress may in some have a beneficial effect, yet for those individuals unable to tackle these aversive events, consecutive unpleasant episodes may lead to worse cognitive performance later in life.Weniger anzeigen
Refractory anaphylaxis (unresponsive to treatment with at least two doses of minimum 300 μg adrenaline) is a rare and often fatal hypersensitivity reaction. Comprehensive data on its definition, prevalence, and risk factors are missing. Using the data from the European Anaphylaxis Registry (11,596 cases in total) we identified refractory anaphylaxis cases (n = 42) and analyzed these in comparison to a control group of severe anaphylaxis cases (n = 4,820). The data show that drugs more frequently elicited refractory anaphylaxis (50% of cases, p < 0.0001) compared to other severe anaphylaxis cases (19.7%). Cases elicited by insects (n = 8) were more often due to bees than wasps in refractory cases (62.5 vs. 19.4%, p = 0.009). The refractory cases occurred mostly in a perioperative setting (45.2 vs. 9.05, p < 0.0001). Intramuscular adrenaline (as a first line therapy) was administered in 16.7% of refractory cases, whereas in 83.3% of cases it was applied intravenously (significantly more often than in severe anaphylaxis cases: 12.3%, p < 0.0001). Second line treatment options (e.g., vasopression with dopamine, methylene blue, glucagon) were not used at all for the treatment of refractory cases. The mortality rate in refractory anaphylaxis was significantly higher (26.2%) than in severe cases (0.353%, p < 0.0001). Refractory anaphylaxis is associated with drug-induced anaphylaxis in particular if allergens are given intravenously. Although physicians frequently use adrenaline in cases of perioperative anaphylaxis, not all patients are responding to treatment. Whether a delay in recognition of anaphylaxis is responsible for the refractory case or whether these cases are due to an overflow with mast cell activating substances-requires further studies. Reasons for the low use of second-line medication (i.e., methylene blue or dopamine) in refractory cases are unknown, but their use might improve the outcome of severe refractory anaphylaxis cases.Weniger anzeigen
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the imaging properties of hepatic metastases in 68Ga-PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with prostate cancer (PC).
68Ga-PSMA-PET/CT scans of PC patients available in our database were evaluated retrospectively for liver metastases. Metastases were identified using 68Ga-PSMA-PET, CT, MRI and follow-up scans. Different parameters including, maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the healthy liver and liver metastases were assessed by two- and three-dimensional regions of interest (2D/3D ROI).
One hundred three liver metastases in 18 of 739 PC patients were identified. In total, 80 PSMA-positive (77.7%) and 23 PSMA-negative (22.3%) metastases were identified. The mean SUVmax of PSMA-positive liver metastases was significantly higher than that of the normal liver tissue in both 2D and 3D ROI (p ≤ 0.05). The mean SUVmax of PSMA-positive metastases was 9.84 ± 4.94 in 2D ROI and 10.27 ± 5.28 in 3D ROI; the mean SUVmax of PSMA-negative metastases was 3.25 ± 1.81 in 2D ROI and 3.40 ± 1.78 in 3D ROI, and significantly lower than that of the normal liver tissue (p ≤ 0.05). A significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlation between SUVmax in PSMA-positive liver metastases and both size (ρSpearman = 0.57) of metastases and PSA serum level (ρSpearman = 0.60) was found.
In 68Ga-PSMA-PET, the majority of liver metastases highly overexpress PSMA and is therefore directly detectable. For the analysis of PET images, it has to be taken into account that also a significant portion of metastases can only be detected indirectly, as these metastases are PSMA-negative.Weniger anzeigen
The role of psychosocial and structural occupational factors in mental health service provision has broadly been researched. However, less is known about the influence of employees' occupational factors on inmates in correctional treatment settings that mostly seek to apply a milieu-therapeutic approach. Therefore, the present study investigated the relationships between occupational factors (job satisfaction, self-efficacy, and the functionality of the organizational structure) and prison climate, the number of staff members' sick days as well as inmates' treatment motivation. Employees (n = 76) of three different correctional treatment units in Berlin, Germany, rated several occupational factors as well as prison climate. At the same time, treatment motivation of n = 232 inmates was assessed. Results showed that higher ratings of prison climate were associated with higher levels of team climate, job satisfaction and the functionality of the organizational structure, but not with self-efficacy and sick days. There was no significant relationship between occupational factors and the perceived safety on the treatment unit. Inmates' treatment motivation was correlated with all aggregated occupational factors and with average sick days of staff members. Outcomes of this study strongly emphasize the importance of a positive social climate in correctional treatment units for occupational factors of prison staff but also positive treatment outcomes for inmates. Also, in the light of these results, consequences for daily work routine and organizational structure of prisons are discussed.Weniger anzeigen
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report on a rare case of its primary oral manifestation that was treated successfully with the BRAF-specific agent, vemurafenib, after insufficient standard LCH treatment. This case underlines the importance of proper diagnosis and the evaluation of targeted therapy as a valuable tool in LCH treatment. Furthermore, the close collaboration of surgeons, oncologists, and dentists is mandatory to ensure adequate treatment, restore the stomatognathic system in debilitating post-treatment situations, improve quality of life, and ensure effective disease control in infants and young patients.Weniger anzeigen
Alterations of structure and density of cortical bone are associated with fragility fractures and can be assessed in vivo in humans at the tibia. Bone remodeling deficits in aging women have been recently linked to an increase in size of cortical pores. In this ex vivo study, we characterized the cortical microarchitecture of 19 tibiae from human donors (aged 69 to 94 years) to address, whether this can reflect impairments of the mechanical competence of the proximal femur, i.e., a major fracture site in osteoporosis. Scanning acoustic microscopy (12 μm pixel size) provided reference microstructural measurements at the left tibia, while the bone vBMD at this site was obtained using microcomputed tomography (microCT). The areal bone mineral density of both left and right femoral necks (aBMDneck) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), while homogenized nonlinear finite element models based on high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography provided hip stiffness and strength for one-legged standing and sideways falling loads. Hip strength was associated with aBMDneck (r = 0.74 to 0.78), with tibial cortical thickness (r = 0.81) and with measurements of the tibial cross-sectional geometry (r = 0.48 to 0.73) of the same leg. Tibial vBMD was associated with hip strength only for standing loads (r = 0.59 to 0.65). Cortical porosity (Ct.Po) of the tibia was not associated with any of the femoral parameters. However, the proportion of Ct.Po attributable to large pores (diameter > 100 μm) was associated with hip strength in both standing (r = -0.61) and falling (r = 0.48) conditions. When added to aBMDneck, the prevalence of large pores could explain up to 17% of the femur ultimate force. In conclusion, microstructural characteristics of the tibia reflect hip strength as well as femoral DXA, but it remains to be tested whether such properties can be measured in vivo.Weniger anzeigen