Lexical ambiguity in the English language is abundant. Word-class ambiguity is even inherently tied to the productive process of conversion. Most lexemes are rather flexible when it comes to word class, which is facilitated by the minimal morphology that English has preserved. This study takes a multivariate quantitative approach to examine potential patterns that arise in a lexicon where verb-noun and noun-verb conversion are pervasive. The distributions of three inflectional suffixes, verbal -s, nominal -s, and -ed are explored for their interaction with degrees of verb-noun conversion. In order to achieve that, the lexical dispersion, context-dependency, and lexical similarity between the inflected and bare forms were taken into consideration and controlled for in a Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS; Stasinopoulos, M. D., R. A. Rigby, and F. De Bastiani. 2018. “GAMLSS: A Distributional Regression Approach.” Statistical Modelling 18 (3–4): 248–73). The results of a series of zero-one-inflated beta models suggest that there is a clear “uncanny” valley of lexemes that show similar proportions of verbal and nominal uses. Such lexemes have a lower proportion of inflectional uses when textual dispersion and context-dependency are controlled for. Furthermore, as soon as there is some degree of conversion, the probability that a lexeme is always encountered without inflection sharply rises. Disambiguation by means of inflection is unlikely to play a uniform role depending on the inflectional distribution of a lexeme.View less
The genus Gynoxys and relatives form a species-rich lineage of Andean shrubs and trees with low genetic distances within the sunflower subtribe Tussilaginineae. Previous molecular phylogenetic investigations of the Tussilaginineae have included few, if any, representatives of this Gynoxoid group or reconstructed ambiguous patterns of relationships for it.
We sequenced complete plastid genomes of 21 species of the Gynoxoid group and related Tussilaginineae and conducted detailed comparisons of the phylogenetic relationships supported by the gene, intron, and intergenic spacer partitions of these genomes. We also evaluated the impact of manual, motif-based adjustments of automatic DNA sequence alignments on phylogenetic tree inference.
Our results indicate that the inclusion of all plastid genome partitions is needed to infer well-supported phylogenetic trees of the Gynoxoid group. Whole plastome-based tree inference suggests that the genera Gynoxys and Nordenstamia are polyphyletic and form the core clade of the Gynoxoid group. This clade is sister to a clade of Aequatorium and Paragynoxys and also includes some but not all representatives of Paracalia.
The concatenation and combined analysis of all plastid genome partitions and the construction of manually-curated, motif-based DNA sequence alignments are found to be instrumental in the recovery of well-supported relationships of the Gynoxoid group. We demonstrate that the correct assessment of homology in genome-level plastid sequence data sets is crucial for subsequent phylogeny reconstruction and that the manual post-processing of multiple sequence alignments improves the reliability of such reconstructions amid low genetic distances between taxa.View less
A novel rapid ex vivo assay was developed as part of a concept to determine potential tailor-made combinations of pre- and probiotics for individual farms. Sow faecal slurries from 20 German pig farms were anaerobically incubated with pre- and probiotics or their combinations together with pathogenic strains that are of interest in pig production. Aliquots of these slurries were then incubated with media containing antibiotic mixtures allowing only growth of the specific pathogen. Growth was monitored and lag time was used to determine the residual fitness of the pathogenic strains. The background growth could be inhibited for an Escherichia coli- and a Clostridium difficile- but not for a Clostridium perfringens strain. The prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and its combination with probiotics reduced the residual fitness of the E. coli strain in some farms. However, notable exceptions occurred in other farms where FOS increased the fitness of the E. coli strain. Generally, combinations of pre- and probiotics did not show additive effects on fitness for E. coli but displayed farm dependent differences. The effects of pre- and probiotics on the residual fitness of the C. difficile strain were less pronounced, but distinct differences between single application of prebiotics and their combination with probiotics were observed. It was concluded that the initial composition of the microbiota in the samples was more determinative for incubations with the C. difficile strain than for incubations with the E. coli strain, as the presumed fermentation of prebiotic products showed less influence on the fitness of the C. difficile strain. Farm dependent differences were pronounced for both pathogenic strains and therefore, this novel screening method offers a promising approach for pre-selecting pre- and probiotics for individual farms. However, evaluation of farm metadata (husbandry, feed, management) will be crucial in future studies to determine a tailor-made solution for combinations of pre- and probiotics for individual farms. Also, refinement of the ex vivo assay in terms of on-farm processing of samples and validation of unambiguous growth for pathogenic strains from individual farms should be addressed.View less
We study the stratified gas in a rapidly rotating centrifuge as a model for the Earth's atmosphere. Based on methods of perturbation theory, it is shown that in certain regimes, internal waves in the gas centrifuge have the same dispersion relation to leading order as their atmospheric siblings. Assuming an air filled centrifuge with a radius of around 50 cm, the optimal rotational frequency for realistic atmosphere-like waves is around 10 000 revolutions per minute. Using gases of lower heat capacities at constant pressure, such as xenon, the rotational frequencies can be even halved to obtain the same results. Similar to the atmosphere, it is feasible in the gas centrifuge to generate a clear scale separation of wave frequencies and therefore phase speeds between acoustic waves and internal waves. In addition to the centrifugal force, the Coriolis force acts in the same plane. However, its influence on axially homogeneous internal waves appears only as a higher-order correction. We conclude that the gas centrifuge provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate atmospheric internal waves experimentally with a compressible working fluid.View less
Bovine mastitis is an important health and cost factor in the milk industry. To elucidate whether isolated perfused bovine udders can be used to study early inflammatory events of mastitis, 1 mg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was instilled into quarters of 10 isolated perfused bovine udders. Three hours and 6 h after LPS instillation, tissue samples were taken from the gland cistern and base of the udder, subsequently stored in RNAlater and processed for the determination of inflammation-dependent gene regulation by real-time RT-qPCR. Gene expression analysis was performed using delta-delta Ct method. To translate mRNA results to protein, IL-1ß and IL-6 were determined in tissue homogenate by ELISA.
The instillation of 1 mg LPS lead to an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines like TNF-α, CCL20, CXCL8 as well as of IL-1 ß, IL-6 and IL-10, lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP) and S100A9. However, the degree of elevation differed slightly between gland cistern and udder base and markedly between 3 and 6 h after instillation, with a distinct increase in mediator expression after 6 h. IL-1β protein increased in a time-dependent manner, whereas IL-6 was unchanged within 6 h of LPS instillation.
Compared to in vivo studies with instillation of LPS into udders of living cows, a similar inflammation-dependent gene regulation profile can be mimicked in the isolated perfused bovine udder, indicating a supplementation of animal experiments.View less
This essay analyzes the main narrative strategies used by Australian artist Shaun Tan in his 2006 wordless graphic novel The Arrival. Following a medium-specific narratological approach, which takes into account the characteristics of the comics medium, the article explores the role that frames, gutters, panels, and other constitutive features of comics play in the representation of narrative time. In addition, the essay addresses how focalization is configured in the graphic novel, proposing a medium-specific typology of the different modes of focalization that can be appreciated in The Arrival.View less
A light-responsive self-complementary crown ether/ammonium conjugate bearing an arylazopyrazole photoswitch as a spacer can be switched between a [c2]daisy chain (E-isomer) and a lasso-type pseudorotaxane (Z-isomer) by light.
El presente trabajo analiza la representación literaria del tren en dos obras monumentales de la literatura iberoamericana contemporánea: la novela José Trigo (1966) del mexicano Fernando de Paso y la obra lírica Poema Sucio (1975) del brasileño Ferreira Gullar. La alusión al tren en ambas obras no se limita a una referencia temática simple, sino que hace de la riqueza semiótica del tren –y de su particular fenomenología en cuanto medio de transporte– una base figurativa abierta a las representaciones sonoras, las cuales potencian el horizonte narrativo y figurativo de los discursos literarios, evidenciando además la pertinencia de un análisis a nivel interdisciplinar literario-musical.View less
Mutations of TRPV3 lead to severe dermal hyperkeratosis in Olmsted syndrome, but whether the mutants are trafficked to the cell membrane or not is controversial. Even less is known about TRPV3 function in intestinal epithelia, although research on ruminants and pigs suggests an involvement in the uptake of NH4+. It was the purpose of this study to measure the permeability of the human homologue (hTRPV3) to NH4+, to localize hTRPV3 in human skin equivalents, and to investigate trafficking of the Olmsted mutant G573S. Immunoblotting and immunostaining verified the successful expression of hTRPV3 in HEK-293 cells and Xenopus oocytes with trafficking to the cell membrane. Human skin equivalents showed distinct staining of the apical membrane of the top layer of keratinocytes with cytosolic staining in the middle layers. Experiments with pH-sensitive microelectrodes on Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that acidification by NH4+ was significantly greater when hTRPV3 was expressed. Single-channel measurements showed larger conductances in overexpressing Xenopus oocytes than in controls. In whole-cell experiments on HEK-293 cells, both enantiomers of menthol stimulated influx of NH4+ in hTRPV3 expressing cells, but not in controls. Expression of the mutant G573S greatly reduced cell viability with partial rescue via ruthenium red. Immunofluorescence confirmed cytosolic expression, with membrane staining observed in a very small number of cells. We suggest that expression of TRPV3 by epithelia may have implications not just for Ca2+ signalling, but also for nitrogen metabolism. Models suggesting how influx of NH4+ via TRPV3 might stimulate skin cornification or intestinal NH4+ transport are discussed.View less
A straightforward and gram-scale synthesis method was developed to engineer highly sulfated hyperbranched polyglycerol bearing sulfated alkyl chains. The compounds with shorter alkyl chains showed multivalent virustatic inhibition against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), similar to heparin. In contrast, the compound with the longest alkyl chains irreversibly inhibited the virus.
Mammalian mandible and cranium are well-established model systems for studying canalization and developmental stability (DS) as two elements of developmental homeostasis. Nematode infections are usually acquired in early life and increase in intensity with age, while canalization and DS of rodent skulls could vary through late postnatal ontogeny. We aimed to estimate magnitudes and describe patterns of mandibular and cranial canalization and DS related to age and parasite intensity (diversity) in adult yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis).
We found the absence of age-related changes in the levels of canalization for mandibular and cranial size and DS for mandibular size. However, individual measures of mandibular and cranial shape variance increased, while individual measures of mandibular shape fluctuating asymmetry (FA) decreased with age. We detected mandibular and cranial shape changes during postnatal ontogeny, but revealed no age-related dynamics of their covariance structure among and within individuals. Categories regarding parasitism differed in the level of canalization for cranial size and the level of DS for cranial shape. We observed differences in age-related dynamics of the level of canalization between non-parasitized and parasitized animals, as well as between yellow-necked mice parasitized by different number of nematode species. Likewise, individual measures of mandibular and cranial shape FA decreased with age for the mandible in the less parasitized category and increased for the cranium in the most parasitized category.
Our age-related results partly agree with previous findings. However, no rodent study so far has explored age-related changes in the magnitude of FA for mandibular size or mandibular and cranial FA covariance structure. This is the first study dealing with the nematode parasitism-related canalization and DS in rodents. We showed that nematode parasitism does not affect mandibular and cranial shape variation and covariance structure among and within individuals. However, parasite intensity (diversity) is related to ontogenetic dynamics of the levels of canalization and DS. Overall, additional studies on animals from natural populations are required before drawing some general conclusions.View less
Der im Verlag Westfälisches Dampfboot erschienene Sammelband Plattformkapitalismus und die Krise der sozialen Reproduktion, herausgegeben von Moritz Altenried, Julia Dück und Mira Wallis, bietet einen aktuellen Überblick zum Forschungsfeld Gig-Economy und soziale Reproduktion in den deutschsprachigen Sozialwissenschaften. Die Rezension greift einzelne Beiträge des Bandes heraus und ordnet diese in das noch neue Feld Plattform-Urbanismus ein.View less
Raman spectroscopy has been widely used in mineralogy and petrology for identifying mineral phases. Some recent applications of Raman spectroscopy involve measuring the residual pressure of mineral inclusions, such as quartz inclusions in garnet host, to recover the entrapment pressure condition during metamorphism. The crystallographic orientations of entrapped inclusions and host are important to know for the modelling of their elastic interaction. However, the analysis of tiny entrapped mineral inclusions using EBSD technique requires time consuming polishing. The crystallographic orientations can be measured using polarized Raman spectroscopy, as the intensities of Raman bands depend on the mutual orientation between the polarization direction of the laser and the crystallographic orientation of the crystal. In this study, the Raman polarizability tensor of quartz is first obtained and is used to fit arbitrary orientations of quartz grains. We have implemented two rotation methods: (1) sample rotation method, where the sample is rotated on a rotation stage, and (2) polarizer rotation method, where the polarization directions of the incident laser and the scattered Raman signal are parallel and can be rotated using a circular polarizer. The precision of the measured crystallographic orientation is systematically studied and is shown to be ca. 0.25 degrees using quartz wafers and quartz plates that are cut along known orientations. It is shown that the orientation of tiny mineral inclusions (ca. 2–5 μm) can be precisely determined and yield consistent results with EBSD.View less
Brain tumors cause local structural impairments of the cerebral network. Moreover, brain tumors can also affect functional brain networks more distant from the lesion. In this study, we analyzed the impact of glioma WHO grade II-IV tumors on grey and white matter in relation to impaired language function. In a retrospective analysis of 60 patients, 14 aphasic and 46 non-aphasic, voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to identify tumor induced lesions in grey (GM) and white matter (WM) related to patients’ performance in subtests of the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT). Significant clusters were analyzed for atlas-based grey and white matter involvements in relation to different linguistic modalities.
VLSM analysis indicated significant contribution of a posterior perisylvian cluster covering WM and GM to AAT performance averaged across subtests. When considering individual AAT subtests, a substantial overlap between significant clusters for analysis of the token test, picture naming and language comprehension results could be observed.
The WM-cluster intersections reflect the overall importance of the perisylvian area in language function, similarly to GM participations. Especially the constant high percentages of Heschl's gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior longitudinal and middle longitudinal fascicles, but also arcuate and inferior fronto-occipital fascicles highlight the importance of the posterior perisylvian area for language function.View less
Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) can be used to eliminate carcinoma cells that overexpress on their cell surface CPE receptors - a subset of claudins (e.g., Cldn3 and Cldn4). However, CPE cannot target tumors expressing solely CPE-insensitive claudins (such as Cldn1 and Cldn5). To overcome this limitation, structure-guided modifications were used to generate CPE variants that can strongly bind to Cldn1, Cldn2 and/or Cldn5, while maintaining the ability to bind Cldn3 and Cldn4. This enabled (a) targeting of the most frequent endocrine malignancy, namely, Cldn1-overexpressing thyroid cancer, and (b) improved targeting of the most common cancer type worldwide, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which is characterized by high expression of several claudins, including Cldn1 and Cldn5. Different CPE variants, including the novel mutant CPE-Mut3 (S231R/S313H), were applied on thyroid cancer (K1 cells) and NSCLC (PC-9 cells) models. In vitro, CPE-Mut3, but not CPEwt, showed Cldn1-dependent binding and cytotoxicity toward K1 cells. For PC-9 cells, CPE-Mut3 improved claudin-dependent cytotoxic targeting, when compared to CPEwt. In vivo, intratumoral injection of CPE-Mut3 in xenograft models bearing K1 or PC-9 tumors induced necrosis and reduced the growth of both tumor types. Thus, directed modification of CPE enables eradication of tumor entities that cannot be targeted by CPEwt, for instance, Cldn1-overexpressing thyroid cancer by using the novel CPE-Mut3.View less
The JUpiter Icy moons Explorer (JUICE) will investigate Ganymede's and Callisto's surfaces and subsurfaces from orbit to explore the geologic processes that have shaped and altered their surfaces by impact, tectonics, possible cryovolcanism, space weathering due to micrometeorites, radiation and charged particles as well as explore the structure and properties of the icy crust and liquid shell (Grasset et al., 2013). The best possible synergy of the JUICE instruments is required to answer the major science objective of this mission and to fully exploit the potential of the JUICE mission. Therefore, the JUICE team is aiming to define high priority targets on both Ganymede's and Callisto's surfaces to support the coordination of the planning activities by the individual instrument teams. Based on the science objectives of the JUICE mission and the most recent knowledge of Ganymede's and Callisto's geologic evolution we propose a collection of Regions of Interest (RoIs), which characterize surface features and terrain types representing important traces of geologic processes, from past and/or present cryovolcanic and tectonic activity to space weathering processes, which are crucial to understand the geologic evolution of Ganymede and Callisto. The proposed evaluation of RoIs is based on their scientific importance as well as on the opportunities and conditions to observe them during the currently discussed mission profile.View less
Europa and Ganymede are both likely to have subsurface oceans (Carr et al., 1998; Khurana et al., 1998; Kivelson et al., 2000). Young surface features may provide an opportunity to sample material from either a subsurface ocean or bodies of liquid water near the surface (McCord et al., 1999, 2001). Detailed compositional information is of large interest for understanding the evolution, oceanic chemistry, and habitability of these moons. To develop an altitude-dependent model for the detectability of ejecta particle composition originating from surface features of a given size, we simulate detections by a dust analyzer with the capability of measuring compositional makeup on board a spacecraft performing close flybys of Europa and Ganymede (Postberg et al., 2011). We determine the origin of simulated detections of ejecta by backtracking their trajectories to the surface using velocity distributions given in the ejecta cloud model by Krivov et al. (2003). Our model is useful for designing flybys with typical closest approach altitudes, such as the ones planned for NASA's Europa Clipper mission, where we wish to accurately identify the composition of surface features using a dust analyzer.View less
Urban air pollution is a substantial threat to human health. Traffic emissions remain a large contributor to air pollution in urban areas. The mobility restrictions put in place in response to the COVID-19 pandemic provided a large-scale real-world experiment that allows for the evaluation of changes in traffic emissions and the corresponding changes in air quality. Here we use observational data, as well as modelling, to analyse changes in nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter resulting from the COVID-19 restrictions at the height of the lockdown period in Spring of 2020. Accounting for the influence of meteorology on air quality, we found that reduction of ca. 30–50 % in traffic counts, dominated by changes in passenger cars, corresponded to reductions in median observed nitrogen dioxide concentrations of ca. 40 % (traffic and urban background locations) and a ca. 22 % increase in ozone (urban background locations) during weekdays. Lesser reductions in nitrogen dioxide concentrations were observed at urban background stations at weekends, and no change in ozone was observed. The modelled reductions in median nitrogen dioxide at urban background locations were smaller than the observed reductions and the change was not significant. The model results showed no significant change in ozone on weekdays or weekends. The lack of a simulated weekday/weekend effect is consistent with previous work suggesting that NOx emissions from traffic could be significantly underestimated in European cities by models. These results indicate the potential for improvements in air quality due to policies for reducing traffic, along with the scale of reductions that would be needed to result in meaningful changes in air quality if a transition to sustainable mobility is to be seriously considered. They also confirm once more the highly relevant role of traffic for air quality in urban areas.View less
The Anarraaq clastic-dominated (CD) Zn-Pb-Ag deposit (Red Dog district, Alaska, USA) has an inferred mineral resource of 19.4 Mt at 14.4% Zn, 4.2% Pb, and 73 g/t Ag and is spatially associated with a separate ~1 Gt barite body. This study presents new cross sections and petrographic evidence from the Anarraaq area. The barite body, previously shown to have formed in a shallow subsurface environment akin to a methane cold seep, contains multiple generations of barite with locally abundant calcite masses, which are discordant to sedimentary laminae, and is underlain by an interval of massive pyrite containing abundant framboids and radiolarians. Calcite and pyrite are interpreted to have formed by methane-driven diagenetic alteration of host sediment at the sulfate-methane transition (SMT). The sulfide deposit contains two zones of Zn-Pb mineralization bounded by faults of unknown displacement. The dominant hydrothermal minerals are marcasite, pyrite, sphalerite, quartz, and galena. The presence of hydrothermal pseudomorphs after barite, early pyrite resembling diagenetic pyrite associated with the barite body, and hydrothermal quartz and sphalerite filling voids formed by dissolution of carbonate all suggest that host sediment composition and origin was similar to that of the barite body prior to hydrothermal mineralization. Rhenium-osmium isochron ages of Ikalukrok mudstone (339.1 ± 8.3 Ma), diagenetic pyrite (333.0 ± 7.4 Ma), and hydrothermal pyrite (334.4 ± 5.3 Ma) at Anarraaq are all within uncertainty of one another and of an existing isochron age (~338 Ma) for the Main deposit in the Red Dog district. This indicates that the Anarraaq deposit formed soon after sedimentation and that hydrothermal activity was approximately synchronous in the district. The initial Os composition of the Anarraaq isochrons (0.375 ± 0.019–0.432 ± 0.025) is consistent with contemporaneous seawater, indicating that a mantle source was not involved in the hydrothermal system. This study highlights the underappreciated but important role of early, methane-driven diagenetic processes in the paragenesis of some CD deposits and has important implications for mineral exploration.View less
Divergent genetic models have been proposed for clastic dominant (CD-type) massive sulfide Zn-Pb mineralization in the Proterozoic Carpentaria Zn Province. Due to varying degrees of tectonic overprint, it has been difficult to accurately constrain structural and paragenetic timing aspects of the CD-type genetic model, and the most basic timing constraints (syngenetic vs. epigenetic, synextension vs. syninversion) remain debated. The recently discovered Teena Zn-Pb deposit is hosted by an exceptionally well preserved subbasin that permits relative timing relationships to be well defined. Using a combination of geophysical, structural, sedimentological, and petrographic datasets, a new model for subbasin development and syndiagenetic hydrothermal replacement mineralization is developed for the Teena mineral system.
At Teena, sulfide mineralization was deposited from lateral fluid flow beneath an impermeable seal several hundred meters below the paleosurface and maximum flood surface, after formation of fine-grained diagenetic pyrite (py1) and dolomite nodules. Sulfide mineralization resulted from syndiagenetic carbonate replacement and pore space cementation where thermochemical sulfate reduction took place. The sulfide mineralization is therefore partly cospatial but not cogenetic with its thick pyritic hanging wall, and its lateral alteration footprint is much smaller than predicted by sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) models. An additional zone of low-grade Zn-Pb mineralization in the footwall W-Fold Shale Member represents a different style of mineralization not previously reported for Carpentaria CD-type Zn deposits: it is associated with strata-bound lenses of hydrothermal dolomite (HTD) that formed by both replacement and carbonate dissolution and infill, which yielded diverse cavity-infill textures that include coarse-bladed dolomite fans cemented by interstitial sphalerite, dolomite, and quartz. Volumetrically minor Zn mineralization is also present in a fault conduit hydrothermal breccia and in hanging-wall synorogenic vein sets derived by hydrothermal leaching and remobilization of Zn from the underlying mineralized zones.
Whereas both the Teena and nearby McArthur River Zn-Pb deposits are located along the northern margin of the 3rd-order Hot Spring-Emu subbasin, they formed in separate 4th-order subbasins in association with local extensional growth faults. Growth fault movement in the Teena subbasin was initiated during deposition of the W-Fold Shale Member and persisted episodically until a weak structural disconformity associated with sedimentary facies regression developed in the Upper HYC unit. Shifting patterns in depocenter location, sedimentary facies development, mineralization, and alteration zonation are attributed to progressive growth and linkage of segments of a regionally anomalous ENE-trending, synsedimentary fault zone. Similar patterns of extensional subbasin development were repeated in other Zn-mineralized subbasins throughout the River supersequence across the northern Carpentaria Zn Province, and formed in response to a short-lived episode of north-northwest–south-southeast regional extension around ca 1640 ± 5 Ma, triggered by far-field subduction events.View less