Brucellosis is one of the most important worldwide zoonoses of many countries including Egypt. Camel brucellosis has not gained much attention in Egypt yet. This study is focused on the three governorates with the highest camel populations and the largest camel markets in the country to determine the disease seroprevalence and identify the Brucella species in local camel holdings. In total, 381 serum samples were collected from male and female camels from Giza, Aswan, and Al-Bahr Al-Ahmar (the Red Sea) governorates. Samples were serologically examined using the Rose–Bengal plate test (RBPT), indirect ELISA (i-ELISA), competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) and complement fixation test (CFT). Brucella antibodies were detected in 59 (15.5%), 87 (22.8%), 77 (20.2%) and 118 (31.0%) of sera by RBPT, i-ELISA, c-ELISA and CFT, respectively. Using real-time PCR, Brucella DNA was amplified in 32 (8.4%) seropositive samples including Brucella abortus (25/32), Brucella suis (5/32) and Brucella melitensis (2/32), defining a complex epidemiological status. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting Brucella suis DNA in camel serum. The risk-associated factors including age, sex, breed and geographical distribution were statistically analyzed, showing non-significant association with seroprevalence. The results of this study will raise awareness for camel brucellosis and help develop effective control strategies.