Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) are autoimmune inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). Pain is highly prevalent and debilitating in NMOSD and MOGAD with a severe impact on quality of life, and there is a critical need for further studies to successfully treat and manage pain in these rare disorders. In NMOSD, pain has a prevalence of over 80%, and pain syndromes include neuropathic, nociceptive, and mixed pain, which can emerge in acute relapse or become chronic during the disease course. The impact of pain in MOGAD has only recently received increased attention, with an estimated prevalence of over 70%. These patients typically experience not only severe headache, retrobulbar pain, and/or pain on eye movement in optic neuritis but also neuropathic and nociceptive pain. Given the high relevance of pain in MOGAD and NMOSD, this article provides a systematic review of the current literature pertaining to pain in both disorders, focusing on the etiology of their respective pain syndromes and their pathophysiological background. Acknowledging the challenge and complexity of diagnosing pain, we also provide a mechanism-based classification of NMOSD- and MOGAD-related pain syndromes and summarize current treatment strategies.