The George Fisher deposit is located in the northern Australian Carpentaria province, which is host to several of the world’s largest Zn and Pb mineral deposits. The annual metal production from George Fisher is crucial in order to meet the global demand for Zn and Pb. The main ore minerals at George Fisher are sphalerite (ZnS) and galena (PbS), which occur in stratabound, and in discordant, massive sulphide ore bodies together with pyrite (FeS2) and pyrrhotite (FeS). These massive sulphide ore bodies are hosted within carbonaceous, pyritic, calcareous, dolomitic siltstones and mudstones of the Paleoproterozoic Urquhart Shale Formation (ca. 1654 Ma), which is also host to two other world class base metal deposits (Mount Isa and Hilton). All three deposits are highly deformed, the textural relationships are complex, and there is a lack of indicator minerals to constrain the metamorphic grade of the Urquhart Shale. As a result, there has been considerable debate over (1) the processes that led to the accumulation of such huge amounts of base metal sulphides in the deposits of the area, and (2) the alteration footprint these processes have produced beyond the massive sulphide zones. In this project, petrographic observations across several scales (drill core logging down to backscatter-electron microscopy) were combined with whole rock, and in situ, mineralogical, geochemical, and isotopic analyses of representative samples from (1) four drill holes that intersected the main ore bodies at George Fisher, and also from (2) a drill hole that intersected the barren Urquhart Shale Formation. These data were collected in order to constrain the background heterogeneity that is inherent to rocks of the Urquhart Shale Formation (e.g., from background diagenetic processes). Using this framework, the nature of some of the hydrothermal processes responsible for ore formation were constrained. Particular emphasis was put on constraining (1) the accumulation processes of reduced sulphur, (2) the ore forming processes, and (3) the mineralogical and geochemical alteration footprint of the George Fisher deposit. In brief, the data from this study suggest that the Urquhart Shale Formation in the location we studied has not undergone regional greenschist metamorphism. The mineralogy and the paleoredox proxies (S-isotope data, Mo concentrations, rare earth elements in carbonate minerals) from the barren Urquhart Shale sequence can, therefore, be interpreted in a sedimentary and diagenetic context; and those data concur with deposition of the Urquhart Shale Formation in a ferruginous, marine environment, which is consistent with the current understanding for the Paleoproterozoic oceans. Using this background composition as base line the petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical, and isotopic data from George Fisher suggest that (1) ore formation occurred in multiple events during diagenesis and later deformation, that (2) reduced sulphur in the deposit was likely derived via thermochemical sulphate reduction and the recycling of sulphur from pre-ore diagenetic pyrite, and that (3) fluid-rock interaction of hot (>200-250 °C), saline (Cl-rich), metal-bearing hydrothermal fluids with the Urquhart Shale Formation led to the dolomitization and replacement of pre-ore carbonate and the precipitation of base metal sulphides. Besides ore formation at George Fisher, these hydrothermal processes have resulted in mineralogical and bulk geochemical changes that include (1) albite, chlorite, and calcite depletion, (2) dolomite, phyllosilicate, and sulphide formation, (3) Na and Sr depletion, and (4) Tl and Mn enrichment relative to the barren host rocks. Furthermore, the fluid-rock interaction has led to light rare earth element (LREE) depletion in hydrothermal and hydrothermally altered carbonate minerals relative to whole rock and pre-ore carbonate LREE compositions. Overall, this project has provided new constraints on background diagenetic and hydrothermal processes, and footprints, in the Urquhart Shale Formation at George Fisher. Moreover, the findings from this study can help to further refine exploration models for Zn-Pb deposits in one of the world’s most important base metal provinces.