Many patients with Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma (OAC) do not benefit from chemoradiotherapy treatment due to therapy resistance. To better understand the mechanisms involved in resistance and to find potential biomarkers, we investigated the association of microRNAs, which regulate gene expression, with the response to individual treatments, focusing on radiation. Intrinsic radiation resistance and chemotherapy drug resistance were assessed in eight OAC cell lines, and miRNA expression profiling was performed via TaqMan OpenArray qPCR. miRNAs discovered were either uniquely associated with resistance to radiation, cisplatin, or 5-FU, or were common to two or all three of the treatments. Target mRNA pathway analyses indicated several potential mechanisms of treatment resistance. miRNAs associated with the in vitro treatment responses were then investigated for association with pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in pre-treatment serums of patients with OAC. miR-451a was associated uniquely with resistance to radiation treatment in the cell lines, and with the response to nCRT in patient serums. Inhibition of miR-451a in the radiation resistant OAC cell line OE19 increased radiosensitivity (Survival Fraction 73% vs. 87%, p = 0.0003), and altered RNA expression. Pathway analysis of effected small non-coding RNAs and corresponding mRNA targets suggest potential mechanisms of radiation resistance in OAC.