Tailoring medical interventions to a particular patient and pathology has been termed personalized medicine. The outcome of cancer treatments is improved when the intervention is timed in accordance with the patient's internal time. Yet, one challenge of personalized medicine is how to consider the biological time of the patient. Prerequisite for this so-called chronotherapy is an accurate characterization of the internal circadian time of the patient. As an alternative to time-consuming measurements in a sleep-laboratory, recent studies in chronobiology predict circadian time by applying machine learning approaches and mathematical modelling to easier accessible observables such as gene expression. Embedding these results into the mathematical dynamics between clock and cancer in mammals, we review the precision of predictions and the potential usage with respect to cancer treatment and discuss whether the patient's internal time and circadian observables, may provide an additional indication for individualized treatment timing. Besides the health improvement, timing treatment may imply financial advantages, by ameliorating side effects of treatments, thus reducing costs. Summarizing the advances of recent years, this review brings together the current clinical standard for measuring biological time, the general assessment of circadian rhythmicity, the usage of rhythmic variables to predict biological time and models of circadian rhythmicity.