Human Campylobacter-infections are progressively rising globally. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying C. coli-host interactions are incompletely understood. In this study, we surveyed the impact of the host-specific intestinal microbiota composition during peroral C. coli infection applying an established murine campylobacteriosis model. Therefore, microbiota-depleted IL-10-/- mice were subjected to peroral fecal microbiota transplantation from murine versus human donors and infected with C. coli one week later by gavage. Irrespective of the microbiota, C. coli stably colonized the murine gastrointestinal tract until day 21 post-infection. Throughout the survey, C. coli-infected mice with a human intestinal microbiota displayed more frequently fecal blood as their murine counterparts. Intestinal inflammatory sequelae of C. coli-infection could exclusively be observed in mice with a human intestinal microbiota, as indicated by increased colonic numbers of apoptotic epithelial cells and innate as well as adaptive immune cell subsets, which were accompanied by more pronounced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in the colon and mesenteric lymph nodes versus mock controls. However, in extra-intestinal, including systemic compartments, pro-inflammatory responses upon pathogen challenge could be assessed in mice with either microbiota. In conclusion, the host-specific intestinal microbiota composition has a profound effect on intestinal and systemic pro-inflammatory immune responses during C. coli infection.