With regard to relapse and survival, early-stage high-grade serous ovarian (HGSOC) patients comprise a heterogeneous group and there is no clear consensus on first-line treatment. Currently, no prognostic markers are available for risk assessment by standard targeted immunohistochemistry and novel approaches are urgently required. Here, we applied MALDI-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS), a new method to identify distinct mass profiles including protein signatures on paraffin-embedded tissue sections. In search of prognostic biomarker candidates, we compared proteomic profiles of primary tumor sections from early-stage HGSOC patients with either recurrent (RD) or non-recurrent disease (N = 4; each group) as a proof of concept study. In total, MALDI-IMS analysis resulted in 7537 spectra from the malignant tumor areas. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, 151 peptides were able to discriminate between patients with RD and non-RD (AUC > 0.6 or < 0.4; p < 0.01), and 13 of them could be annotated to proteins. Strongest expression levels of specific peptides linked to Keratin type1 and Collagen alpha-2(I) were observed and associated with poor prognosis (AUC > 0.7). These results confirm that in using IMS, we could identify new candidates to predict clinical outcome and treatment extent for patients with early-stage HGSOC.