Short association fibers (U-fibers) connect proximal cortical areas and constitute the majority of white matter connections in the human brain. U-fibers play an important role in brain development, function, and pathology but are underrepresented in current descriptions of the human brain connectome, primarily due to methodological challenges in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) of these fibers. High spatial resolution and dedicated fiber and tractography models are required to reliably map the U-fibers. Moreover, limited quantitative knowledge of their geometry and distribution makes validation of U-fiber tractography challenging. Submillimeter resolution diffusion MRI-facilitated by a cutting-edge MRI scanner with 300 mT/m maximum gradient amplitude-was used to map U-fiber connectivity between primary and secondary visual cortical areas (V1 and V2, respectively) in vivo. V1 and V2 retinotopic maps were obtained using functional MRI at 7T. The mapped V1-V2 connectivity was retinotopically organized, demonstrating higher connectivity for retinotopically corresponding areas in V1 and V2 as expected. The results were highly reproducible, as demonstrated by repeated measurements in the same participants and by an independent replication group study. This study demonstrates a robust U-fiber connectivity mapping in vivo and is an important step toward construction of a more complete human brain connectome.