Basierend auf frühere Befunde wurde eine Typologie entwickelt, die vier verschiedene Typen von sozio-motivatonaler (Un-)Abhängigkeit unterscheidet, den lehrer-abhängige Typ, den peer-abhängige Typ, den lehrer-und-peer-abhängige Typ und den lehrer-und-peer-unabhängigen Typ. Das Ziel dieser Dissertation ist es, ein besseres Verständnis der Typologie und der sozio-motivatonalen (Un-)Abhängigkeit während der frühen und mittleren Adoleszenz zu geben. Dabei wird erforscht, wie sich die Wahrnehmung von Schülern in Bezug auf Lehre und Peers als Motivatoren unterscheiden und verändern. Die Ergebnisse dieser Dissertation helfen, den Zusammenhang zwischen sozialen Beziehungen in der Schule und schulischer Motivation besser zu verstehen.
The aim of this dissertation is to further enhance our understanding of socio-motivational (in-) dependency during early and middle adolescence. I examined students’ academic motivation, academic achievement, and social relationships at school and their link to students’ perceptions of teachers and peers as a potential source of motivation. Furthermore, I investigated interindividual differences and intraindividual changes over time in adolescent students’ socio-motivational (in-) dependency. Finally, to extend previous findings I examined students’ perceptions considering negative effects of teachers and peers on academic motivation. A question was, to what extent does students’ motivation, academic achievement, and social relationships influence the differential perception of peers and teachers as motivators? To answer this question, the latent class model from a preliminary study (Raufelder, Jagenow, Drury, & Hoferichter, 2013) was extended by a multinomial logistic regression model to one conjoint model. The new model was used to examine whether the LCs were explained by various covariates using a three-step approach. Intrinsic motivation, achievement drive, learning goals and academic achievement are predictors of differences in students’ perception of teachers and peers as a potential source of motivation. In contrast, the quality of social relationships with peers is no significant predictor of socio-motivational (in-) dependency. Latent transition analyses were employed to investigate intraindividual changes in students’ socio-motivational (in-) dependency from seventh and eighth grade to ninth and tenth grade. The analyses indicated the presence of important interindividual differences in students’ socio-motivational (in-) dependency through adolescence. In addition, the composition of the sample constituting each type changed over time indicating intraindividual changes over time in adolescent students’ perceptions of teachers and peers as potential sources of motivation. To investigate negative effects of teachers and peers on academic motivation latent class and latent transition analyses were employed. Six different motivation types could be distinguished in seventh and eighth grade students within the same cohort approximately two years later. Teachers function not only as positive motivator but also as negative. However, students did not perceive peers as having negative effects on their own motivation. Concerning changes over time, the composition of the sample, constituting each type, changed over time, indicating intraindividual changes in students’ perceptions of teachers and peers as potential sources of motivation. The results of this dissertation raise important implications not only for research on socio-motivational (in-)dependency but also for research on social environment and its link to school adjustment. The research provides practical implications for the learning and teaching tools used on a daily basis in schools, as well as a novel theoretical perspective into the interplay between social relationships and motivation in classroom environments. The new insights into the role of peers and teachers on students’ motivation will be discussed.