Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a physio- and pharmacologically highly relevant class of complex saccharides, possessing a linear sequence and strongly acidic character. Their repetitive linear core makes them seem structurally simple at first glance, yet differences in sulfation and epimerization lead to an enormous structural diversity with only a few GAGs having been successfully characterized to date. Recent infrared action spectroscopic experiments on sulfated mono- and disaccharide ions show great promise. Here, we assess the potential of two types of gas-phase action spectroscopy approaches in the range from 1000 to 1800 cm−1 for the structural analysis of complex GAG oligosaccharides. Synthetic tetra- and pentasaccharides were chosen as model compounds for this benchmark study. Utilizing infrared multiple photon dissociation action spectroscopy at room temperature, diagnostic bands are largely unresolved. In contrast, cryogenic infrared action spectroscopy of ions trapped in helium nanodroplets yields resolved infrared spectra with diagnostic features for monosaccharide composition and sulfation pattern. The analysis of GAGs could therefore significantly benefit from expanding the conventional MS-based toolkit with gas-phase cryogenic IR spectroscopy.