Combination immunotherapy (CIT) is currently applied as a treatment for different cancers and is proposed as a cure strategy for chronic viral infections. Whether such therapies are efficient during an acute infection remains elusive. To address this, inhibitory receptors were blocked and regulatory T cells depleted in acutely Friend retrovirus-infected mice. CIT resulted in a dramatic expansion of cytotoxic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a subsequent reduction in viral loads. Despite limited viral replication, mice developed fatal immunopathology after CIT. The pathology was most severe in the gastrointestinal tract and was mediated by granzyme B producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. A similar post-CIT pathology during acute Influenza virus infection of mice was observed, which could be prevented by vaccination. Melanoma patients who developed immune-related adverse events under immune checkpoint CIT also presented with expanded granzyme-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations. Our data suggest that acute infections may induce immunopathology in patients treated with CIT, and that effective measures for infection prevention should be applied.