Baseline ecological, genetic and behavioural information is still lacking and is urgently needed to set up an efficient conservation action plan for Caucasian lynx Lynx lynx dinniki in Turkey. This dissertation investigated the diet and foraging ecology of the three largest Caucasian lynx populations occupying three major lynx habitat types in Anatolia, the Asian part of Turkey. I also studied the spatial organisation and genetic variation as well as interactions between individuals of Caucasian lynx in a study area in northwestern Anatolia where I benefitted from long-term monitoring efforts started in 2009. In Chapter 2, I quantified the diet, prey preferences and functional response of three Caucasian lynx populations in Anatolia from a comparative perspective of European Eurasian lynx populations. The diet of the Eurasian lynx in Anatolia consists mostly of brown hares Lepus europaeus (78 % - 99 % of prey biomass consumed). Its foraging ecology fulfils expectations for a lagomorph specialist, similar to Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus and Canadian lynx Lynx canadensis in other ecosystems. Caucasian lynx in Anatolia display comparable body sizes and physiological requirements to individuals of other lagomorph specialist lynx species and consume half the daily food required to sustain a European Eurasian lynx individual. There was a high incidence of cannibalism, an aggressive behaviour that has very rarely observed in low density European lynx populations, observed in two ecosystems in Anatolia. In Chapter 3, I used nuclear molecular markers to investigate how sampling methodology can affect measures of genetic diversity if the population contains male territorial residents, other male residents and females are philopatric. I contrasted ‘invasive’ sampling, where tissue samples are obtained from individuals caught in box traps, with ‘non-invasive’ sampling, which requires the search and collection of faecal samples (in my case optimised through the training and use of a domestic dog trained to find lynx faeces) and the use of camera trapping. The results demonstrated that ‘invasive’ sampling was an inefficient technique and biased in favour of sampling particular territorial individuals and their offspring, thereby underestimating the true genetic variation in the population. ‘Non-invasive’ faecal sampling resulted in a less biased sampling of all sexes and classes of residents, an improved estimate of genetic diversity measures and a significantly higher level of genetic diversity obtained. The results indicate a high genetic diversity and no signs of inbreeding for northwest Anatolian lynx. Non-invasive faecal sampling not only provides more reliable genetic diversity measures but also delivers additional information on other important aspects of the biology and ecology of the same population, including diet, spatial organization and the presence of female philopatry, which in turn can help to inform conservation management planning. In Chapter 4, I investigated the spatial behaviour and population density of a northwest Anatolian Caucasian lynx population through GPS tracking of nine lynx individuals and camera trapping. The results indicated that Caucasian lynx in this study area have the smallest mean territorial female and male kernel density distribution (KUD) and minimum convex polygon (MCP) home ranges (females: 95% KUD = 46±8, 100% MCP = 49±16; males: 95% KUD = 176±3, 100% MCP = 183±5) ever reported for Eurasian lynx and a high density (4.9 lynx/100km2), on a level comparable to southern Anatolia. A different prey type, a high prey density and the absence of exploitation of this lynx population are likely drivers of the observed small home ranges. The detailed results revealed two male spatial tactics associated with separate life history stages – adult males start their residency in a population as resident floaters, ranging across huge home ranges and queuing for a territory, probably for several years. Territorial residents defend small territories. It is at present unclear whether territorial residents and / or floaters are candidate males to father the offspring of the resident philopatric females. A landscape fully occupied by adult territorial individuals is likely the cause of late territory establishment in male lynx and the large home range sizes of floaters. In this respect, Caucasian lynx resemble the spatial organisation of cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus, where the existence of floaters queuing for territories has also been documented in high density populations in eastern and southern Africa. This thesis sheds light on foraging ecology, diet, spatial organization and behaviour and genetic variability of Caucasian lynx in Anatolia. It also provides baseline information required to set up a conservation action plan of Caucasian lynx in Anatolia. For such an action plan to become effective, the non-invasive population genetics and density estimate methods applied in this study will be an essential tool for the assessment of the status of other Caucasian lynx populations in Anatolia and elsewhere.