Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains a fatal disease. Its development encompasses a complex interplay between hemodynamic stimuli on and changes in the arterial wall. Currently available biomarkers fail to predict the risk of AAA rupture independent of aneurysm size. Therefore, novel biomarkers for AAA characterization are needed. In this study, we used a mouse model of AAA to investigate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an albumin-binding probe to assess changes in vascular permeability at different stages of aneurysm growth. Two imaging studies were performed: a longitudinal study with follow-up and death as endpoint to predict rupture risk and a week-by-week study to characterize AAA development. AAAs, which eventually ruptured, demonstrated a significantly higher in vivo MR signal enhancement from the albumin-binding probe (p = 0.047) and a smaller nonenhancing thrombus area compared to intact AAAs (p = 0.001). The ratio of albumin-binding-probe enhancement of the aneurysm wall to size of nonenhancing-thrombus-area predicted AAA rupture with high sensitivity/specificity (100%/86%). More advanced aneurysms with higher vascular permeability demonstrated an increased uptake of the albumin-binding-probe. These results indicate that MRI with an albumin-binding probe may enable noninvasive assessment of vascular permeability in murine AAAs and prediction of rupture risk.